January 11 – The Austrian nobility are granted freedom of religion.
January 23 – The Royal Exchange opens in London, England.
March 18 – The Order of the Knights of Saint John transfer the capital of Malta from Birgu to Valletta.
May 24 – Moscow is burnt by the Crimean army under Devlet I Giray.
June 3 – Following conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila, Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi makes Manila a city and the capital of the Philippines.
June 25 – Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle, is founded in Lincolnshire, England.
June 27 – Establishment of Jesus College "within the City and University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's foundation" in England by Welsh cleric and lawyer Hugh Price.
July 25 – St Olave's Grammar School is founded in Tooley Street, London.
August 1 – Ottoman conquest of Cyprus is concluded by the surrender of Famagusta. Cyprus is established as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire and the first Turkish colony moves into the island.
August 29 – Foundation of Liliw, Laguna, Philippines, by Gat Tayaw, followers and residents as a municipality of Laguna.
September 28 – The House of Commons of England introduces the first pro forma bill, symbolizing its authority over its own affairs.
October 7 – Battle of Lepanto: Spanish, Venetian, and Papal naval forces under Don John of Austria defeat the Turkish fleet of Ali Monizindade Pasha.
Using mercury in the silver extraction process dramatically increases the output of the Potosí mine; thus begins the great silver flow that links the New and Old Worlds.
January 9 – Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy, French soldier in Habsburg service (d. 1621)
January 27 – Abbas I of Safavid, Shah of Iran (d. 1629)
February 15 – Michael Praetorius, German composer and writer on music (d. 1621)
March 31 – Pietro Aldobrandini, Cardinal, archbishop (d. 1621)
April 17 – Adam Contzen, German economist (d. 1635)
April 22 – Giovanni Branca, Italian architect and engineer (d. 1645)
April 24 – Sur Singh, Ruler of Marwar (d. 1619)
May 11 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (d. 1637)
June 17 – Thomas Mun, English writer on economics (d. 1641)
July 16 – Theodoor Galle, engraver (d. 1633)
August 2 – Charles, Duke of Guise, son of Henry I (d. 1640)
September 12 – Álvaro de Bazán, 2nd Marquis of Santa Cruz (d. 1646)
September 21 – Giovanni Battista Magnani, Italian architect (d. 1653)
September 29 – Caravaggio, Venetian artist (d. 1610)
Anton Henry, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1586–1638) (d. 1638)
Maria, Abbess of Quedlinburg, German abbess (d. 1610)
October 15 – Jacob Matham, Dutch artist (d. 1631)
October 18 – Wolfgang Ratke, German educational reformer (d. 1635)
November 18 – Hippolytus Guarinonius, physician and polymath (d. 1654)
December 4 – Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias, Spanish prince (d. 1578)
December 9 – Metius, Dutch mathematician and astronomer (d. 1635)
Giles de Coninck, Jesuit theologian (d. 1633)
Scévole de Sainte-Marthe, French historian (d. 1650)
December 27 – Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (d. 1630)
December 31 – Emperor Go-Yōzei, of Japan (d. 1617)
Henry Ainsworth, English Nonconformist clergyman and scholar (d. 1622)
William Bedell, Anglican churchman (d. 1642)
Willem Blaeu, Dutch cartographer (d. 1638)
Frederick de Houtman, Dutch explorer (d. 1627)
Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Irish chieftain and rebel (d. 1603)
Aleksander Ostrogski, Polish nobleman (d. 1603)
Alessandro Peretti di Montalto, Venetian cardinal (d. 1623)
Thomas Storer, English poet (d. 1604)
Thomas Wintour, English Gunpowder Plot conspirator (d. 1606)
Paulus Moreelse, Dutch painter (d. 1638)
Lucrezia Marinella, Italian poet and author (d. 1653)
January 3 – Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1505)
January 9 – Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, French naval officer (b. 1510)
February 12 – Nicholas Throckmorton, English diplomat and politician (b. 1515)
February 13 – Benvenuto Cellini, Italian artist (b. 1500)
March 6 – Tsukahara Bokuden, Japanese swordsman (b. 1489)
March 21 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant (b. 1517)
March 21 – Hans Asper, Swiss painter (b. 1499)
April 6 – John Hamilton, Scottish prelate and politician (b. 1511)
May 4 – Pierre Viret, Swiss theologian (b. 1511)
June 1 – John Story, English Catholic (martyred) (b. 1504)
July 6 – Mōri Motonari, Japanese warlord (b. 1497)
July 15 – Shimazu Takahisa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1514)
July 17 – Georg Fabricius, German poet (b. 1516)
September 4 – Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (b. 1516)
October 7 – Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, consort of Christian III of Denmark (b. 1511)
Titu Cusi, Incan ruler (b. 1529)
Jan Tarło, Polish nobleman
Year 1571 (MDLXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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