|Covid-19|January 9 – Ivan the Terrible starts the Massacre of Novgorod.
January 23 – The assassination of Scottish regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, by James Hamilton (the first recorded assassination using a firearm) throws Scotland into civil war.
February 8 – A magnitude 8.3 earthquake occurs in Concepción, Chile.
February 15 – Venus occults Jupiter; this will next happen in 1818.
February 25 – Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis.
May 20 – Abraham Ortelius publishes the first modern atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, in Antwerp.
June 10 – The Kingdom of Livonia is established.
July 3 – Ottoman conquest of Cyprus begins.
July 14 – Pope Pius V issues Quo primum, promulgating the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal.
July 30 – The Sengoku period nihongo Battle of Anegawa 姉川の戦い Ane-gawa no Tatakai occurred near Lake Biwa in Ōmi Province, Japan, between the allied forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu, against the combined forces of the Azai and Asakura clans.
August 8 – The Peace of Saint-Germain ends the Third War of Religion in France. Again, the Huguenots are promised religious freedom and political autonomy.
Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo in the service of Miguel López de Legazpi begins conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila.
Construction of the original Catedral Nuestra Señora de La Asunción, the oldest church in Venezuela, begins.
Whitechapel Bell Foundry known to be in existence in London. By the early 21st century it will be the oldest manufacturing company in Great Britain.
Andrea Palladio publishes I quattro libri dell'architettura in Venice.
The Andean population of the Viceroyalty of Peru reaches 1.3 million.
Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Spouse of Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (d. 1649)
John Dackombe, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (d. 1618)
January 19 – Wolfgang Hirschbach, German legal scholar (d. 1620)
January 22 – Robert Bruce Cotton, English politician (d. 1631)
February – Henry Balnaves, Scottish politician and religious reformer (b. 1512)
March 25 – Henry Lennard, 12th Baron Dacre, English baron and politician (d. 1616)
April 13 – Guy Fawkes, English conspirator (d. 1606)
May 8 – Tamás Esterházy, Hungarian writer (d. 1616)
May 22 – Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, German duke (d. 1605)
June 7 – Sultan Murad Mirza, Mughal Empire emperor (d. 1599)
June 13 – Paul Peuerl, German organist (d. 1625)
August 10 – Philip, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1587–1590) (d. 1590)
August 21 – Christopher, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg, Co-ruler of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Harburg (1603–1606) (d. 1606)
August 22 – Franz von Dietrichstein, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1636)
August 31 – Gustav of Saxe-Lauenburg, German noble (d. 1597)
September 28 – Sir Richard Hoghton, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1630)
October 3 – George Coke, British bishop (d. 1646)
October 4 – Péter Pázmány, Hungarian cardinal and statesman (d. 1637)
Volkert Overlander, Dutch mayor (d. 1630)
Jean Richardot the Younger, Belgian politician (d. 1614)
November 1 – Phineas Pett, shipwright and a member of the Pett dynasty (d. 1647)
November 15 – Francesco Curradi, Italian painter (d. 1661)
November 20 – Giovanni Battista Agucchi, Italian churchman, Papal diplomat, and writer on art theory (d. 1632)
November 26 – Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Ærø (1622–1633) (d. 1633)
November 28 – James Whitelocke, English judge (d. 1632)
December 7 – Richard Cecil, English politician (d. 1633)
December 29 – Wilhelm Lamormaini, Luxembourgian theologian (d. 1648)
Diego Aduarte, Prior of Manila (d. 1637)
Robert Aytoun, Scottish poet (d. 1638)
Ebba Bielke, Swedish baroness and conspirator (d. 1618)
John Cooper, English composer and lutenist (d. 1626)
John Farmer, English composer (d. c.1601)
Simon Grahame, Scottish-born adventurer (d. 1614)
Nakagawa Hidenari, Japanese daimyo (d. 1612)
Hans Lippershey, Dutch lensmaker (d. 1619)
Asprilio Pacelli, Italian Baroque composer (d. 1623)
Girolamo Rainaldi, Italian architect (d. 1655)
Salamone Rossi, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1630)
John Smyth, English Baptist minister (d. 1612)
Chief Powhatan, Algonquin chief (d. 1620)
Claudia Sessa, Italian composer (d. 1617/19)
Katharina Henot, German General Postmaster and alleged witch (d. 1627)
Urszula Meyerin, politically influential Polish courtier (d. 1635)
January 8 – Philibert de l'Orme, French architect (b. 1510)
January 19 – Paris Bordone, Venetian painter (b. 1495)
January 23 – James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland (assassinated) (b. c.1531)
July 1 – Zofia Tarnowska, Polish noblewoman (b. 1534)
July 3 – Aonio Paleario, Italian humanist and reformer (executed) (b. c. 1500)
July 25 – Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovatyi, Russian diplomat
October 1 – Frans Floris, Flemish painter (b. 1520)
October 18 – Manuel da Nóbrega, Portuguese Jesuit in Brazil (b. 1517)
October 20 – João de Barros, Portuguese historian (b. 1496)
November – Jacques Grévin, French dramatist (b. 1539)
November 27 – Jacopo Sansovino, Italian sculptor and architect (b. 1486)
François Bonivard, Swiss patriot and historian (b. 1496)
Yi Hwang, Korean Confucian scholar (b. 1501)
Francesco Primaticcio, Italian painter, architect, and sculptor (b. 1504)
Tomás de Santa María, Spanish music theorist
Year 1570 (MDLXX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.