|Covid-19|February 27 – Battle of Ancrum Moor: The Scots are victorious over numerically superior English forces.
June 13 – Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez sets out to navigate the northern coast of New Guinea.
July 18–19 – Battle of the Solent between English and French fleets. The engagement is inconclusive but on July 19 Henry VIII of England's flagship, the Mary Rose, sinks.
c. July 21 – Battle of Bonchurch: The English reverse an attempted French invasion of the Isle of Wight off the coast of England as part of the Italian Wars.
c. September – Mobye Narapati succeeds as ruler of the Ava Kingdom and offers peace to the Taungoo dynasty, ending the Taungoo–Ava War (1538–45) and leaving the Taungoo as the dominant rulers in Burma.
October – Siege of Kawagoe Castle begins as part of an unsuccessful attempt by the Uesugi clan to regain Kawagoe Castle from the Late Hōjō clan in Japan.
December 13 – The Council of Trent officially opens in northern Italy (closes 1563).
Battle of Sokhoista: The army of the Ottoman Empire defeats an alliance of Georgian dynasts.
In China a large failure of the harvest in Henan province occurs due to excessive rainfall, which drives up the price of wheat and forces many to flee their rural counties; those who stay behind are forced to survive by eating leaves, bark, and human flesh.
Diogo I Nkumbi a Mpudi overthrows his uncle Pedro Nkanga a Mvemba to become manikongo.
Silver is discovered at Potosí, Bolivia.
St. Anne's Church, Augsburg converts to Lutheranism.
January 1 – Magnus Heinason, Faroese naval hero (d. 1589)
January 11 – Guidobaldo del Monte, Italian mathematician, astronomer and philosopher (d. 1607)
March 2 – Thomas Bodley, English diplomat and scholar, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford (d. 1613)
March 18 – Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, German bishop (d. 1617)
March 25 – John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg (d. 1622)
April 1 – Peder Claussøn Friis, Norwegian clergyman and author (d. 1614)
April 2 – Elisabeth of Valois, queen of Philip II of Spain (d. 1568)
April 15 – Karl II, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels, Duke of Oels (1565–1617), Duke of Bernstadt (1604–1617) (d. 1617)
April 24 – Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, English Earl (d. 1581)
April 28 – Yi Sun-sin, Korean naval commander (d. 1598)
May 1 – Franciscus Junius, French theologian (d. 1602)
May 22 – Karl Christoph, Duke of Münsterberg (d. 1569)
June 6 – Jerome Gratian, Spanish Carmelite and writer (d. 1614)
June 13 – Naitō Nobunari, Samurai and daimyo of Omi Province (d. 1612)
June 19 – Princess Anna Maria of Sweden, Swedish royal (d. 1610)
July 8 – Don Carlos of Spain, son of Philip II of Spain (d. 1568)
August 1 – Andrew Melville, Scottish theologian and religious reformer (d. 1622)
August 27 – Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (d. 1592)
September 7 – Eitel Friedrich IV, Count of Hohenzollern, First Count of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (d. 1605)
October 15 – Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst, Abbess of Gernrode and Frose, later Countess of Barby-Mühlingen (d. 1574)
October 19 – John Juvenal Ancina, Italian Oratorian and bishop (d. 1604)
November 20 – Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1592)
November 25 – Ana de Jesús, Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun and spiritual writer (d. 1621)
December 6 – Janus Dousa, Dutch historian and noble (d. 1604)
December 7 – Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, consort of Mary, Queen of Scots (d. 1567)
George Bannatyne, collector of Scottish poems (d. 1608)
John Field, British Puritan clergyman and controversialist (d. 1588)
John Gerard, English botanist (d. 1612)
William Morgan, Welsh Bible translator (d. 1604)
Azai Nagamasa, Japanese nobleman (d. 1572)
Mashita Nagamori, Japanese warlord (d. 1615)
Nicholas Breton, English poet and novelist (d. 1626)
Joris Hoefnagel, Dutch painter and engraver (d. 1601)
Douglas Sheffield, Baroness Sheffield, lover of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (d. 1608)
Ra's al Ghul, DC Comics villain
January 16 – George Spalatin, German reformer (b. 1484)
February 12 – Stanisław Odrowąż, Polish noble (b. 1509)
April 3 – Antonio de Guevara, Spanish chronicler and moralist (b. 1481)
April 10 – Costanzo Festa, Italian composer (b. 1495)
April 22 – Louis X, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1496)
April 25 – Jobst II, Count of Hoya (b. 1493)
May – Agnes Howard, Duchess of Norfolk, English noblewoman (b. c. 1477)
May 22 – Sher Shah Suri, Indian ruler (b. 1486)
June 12 – Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1517)
July 7 – Pernette Du Guillet, poet (b. c. 1520)
August 24 – Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English politician and husband of Mary Tudor (b. c. 1484)
August 27 – Piotr Gamrat, Polish Catholic archbishop (b. 1487)
September – Hans Baldung, German artist (b. 1480)
September 24 – Albert of Mainz, elector and archbishop of Mainz (b. 1490)
October 18 – John Taverner, English composer (b. c. 1490)
William Latimer, English churchman and scholar (b. c. 1467)
Fernão Lopez, Portuguese renegade
Year 1545 (MDXLV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.