|Covid-19|January 7 – Catherine of Aragon, first queen of Henry VIII of England, dies.
February 2 – Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina.
February 25 – Jacob Hutter is burned at the stake for heresy.
April 30 – The Inquisition is implemented in Portugal.
May 2 – Anne Boleyn, second queen of Henry VIII of England, is arrested on the grounds of incest, adultery, and treason.
May 6 – Incan emperor Manco Inca Yupanqui, having on April 18 escaped from imprisonment in Cuzco, begins his revolt against his captors when his army begins the 10-month Siege of Cuzco against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries led by Hernando Pizarro.
May 17 – The five men accused of adultery with Anne Boleyn, including her own brother George Boleyn, are executed.
May 19 – Anne Boleyn, queen consort of Henry VIII of England is executed in the Tower of London.
May 30 – Henry VIII of England marries Jane Seymour.
June 24 – Cristóbal de Oñate founds San Juan Bautista del Teul.
June 26 – Andrés de Urdaneta and a few companions arrive in Lisbon, completing a circumnavigation which began with de Loaísa's expedition of 1525.
June 27 – San Pedro Sula is founded by Pedro de Alvarado.
October 13 – The Pilgrimage of Grace, a rebellion in York, is "resolved" by Robert Aske.
War resumes between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis ceases control of Savoy and captures Turin. Charles triumphally enters Rome following the Via Triumphalis and delivers a speech before the pope and college of cardinals publicly challenging the king of France to a duel.
Battle of Un no Kuchi: Takeda Family forces defeat Hiraga Genshin.
Various religious buildings are closed as part of Henry VIII of England's Dissolution of the Monasteries, including
The legal and political union of Wales with England is reinforced by An Acte for Lawes & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme.
Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein: Protestantism is introduced in Denmark and Norway by King Christian III.
Publication of John Calvin's Institutio Christianæ religionis, a seminal work of Protestant systematic theology.
Battle of Reynogüelén: First battle between Spanish conquistadors and Mapuches in Chile; start of the Arauco War.
The Portuguese crown divides Colonial Brazil into fifteen donatory captaincies.
Trade compact exempts French merchants from Ottoman law and allows them to travel, buy and sell throughout the sultan's dominions and to pay low customs duties on French imports and exports. The compact is renewed in 1569.
January 22 – Philibert, Margrave of Baden-Baden (d. 1569)
Scévole de Sainte-Marthe, French poet (d. 1623)
Piotr Skarga, Polish writer (d. 1612)
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese warlord (b. this day or March 26, 1537; d. 1598)
February 12 – Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice (d. 1612)
February 24 – Pope Clement VIII (d. 1605)
March 6 – Santi di Tito, Italian painter (d. 1603)
March 10 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, English politician (d. 1572)
March 31 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shogun (d. 1565)
April 8 – Barbara of Hesse (d. 1597)
May 3 – Stephan Praetorius, German theologian (d. 1603)
May 13 – Jacobus Pamelius, Belgian bishop (d. 1587)
August 10 – Caspar Olevian, German Protestant theologian (d. 1587)
August 14 – René, Marquis of Elbeuf (d. 1566)
October 18 – William Lambarde, English antiquarian, writer on legal subjects, politician (d. 1601)
October 21 – Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt (d. 1586)
October 28 – Felix Plater, Swiss physician (d. 1614)
November 11 – Marcantonio Memmo, Doge of Venice (d. 1615)
November 22 – Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1606)
December 26 – Yi I, Korean Confucian scholar (d. 1584)
December 29 – Henry VI, Burgrave of Plauen (d. 1572)
Juan de Fuca, Greek maritime pilot (d. 1602)
Jeong Cheol, Korean administrator and poet (d. 1593)
Cornelis Cort, Dutch engraver (d. 1578)
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, English statesman and poet (d. 1608)
Leonor de Cisneros, Spanish Protestant (d. 1568)
Guilford Dudley, son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (d. 1554)
Roger Marbeck, chief physician to Elizabeth I of England (d. 1604)
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, British statesman and admiral (d. 1624)
Friedrich Sylburg, German classical scholar (d. 1596)
Ikeda Tsuneoki, Japanese military commander (d. 1584)
January 7 – Catherine of Aragon, First Queen of Henry VIII of England (b. 1485)
John of Leiden, Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden (b. 1509)
Bernhard Knipperdolling, German religious leader (b. c. 1495)
Berchtold Haller, German-born reformer (b. 1492)
Jacob Hutter, founder of the Hutterite religious movement (burned at the stake)
March 1 – Bernardo Accolti, Italian poet (b. 1465)
April 4 – Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (b. 1460)
May 17 – George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, English diplomat (executed) (b. 1503)
May 19 – Anne Boleyn, Second Queen of Henry VIII of England (executed) (b. c. 1501/1507)
May 26 – Francesco Berni, Italian poet (b. 1497)
June 18 – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England (b. 1519)
June 28 – Richard Pace, English diplomat (b. 1482)
August 10 – Francis III, Duke of Brittany, Dauphin of France, Brother of Henry II (b. 1518)
September 6 – William Tyndale, English Protestant Bible translator (b. c. 1494)
September 25 – Johannes Secundus, Dutch poet (b. 1511)
September 26 – Didier de Saint-Jaille, 46th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller
September 27 – Felice della Rovere, also known as Madonna Felice, was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (b. 1483)
October 18 – Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet (b. 1503)
December 21 – Sir John Seymour, English courtier (b. 1474)
Hector Boece – Scottish philosopher (b. 1465)
Hiraga Genshin, Japanese retainer and samurai
John Rastell, English printer and author
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, French theologian and humanist (b. c. 1450)
Year 1536 (MDXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.