The 106th Guards Tula Red Banner Order of Kutuzov Airborne Division, more generally referred to as the Tula Division, is one of the four airborne divisions of the Russian Airborne Troops, the VDV (Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска, Vozdushno-desantnye voyska). Based in the city of Tula, to the south of Moscow, it is administratively located within the Western Military District.
The Division was founded in January 1944 as the 16th Guards Airborne Division, and from then until the end of the Second World War fought in Hungary, Austria and Czechoslovakia (including in Prague), mostly with 38th Guards Rifle Corps of 9th Guards Army. It became the 106th Guards Rifle Division in December 1944, as all the original VDV divisions and brigades were being reconstituted as Guards Rifle formations. The Division's honorifics are 'Red Banner, Order of Kutuzov', though an early Western writer reported them as 'Dneipr-Transbaikal' seemingly incorrectly, at one point in its history.
On 7 June 1946, the 106th Guards Rifle Division was converted to an airborne division at Tula, part of the new 38th Guards Airborne Corps. On 1 October 1948, the division's 347th Guards Air Landing Regiment was used to form the 11th Guards Airborne Division. It was replaced by the new 51st Guards Air Landing Regiment, which became an airborne unit in 1949. On 5 May 1955, the 137th Guards Airborne Regiment joined the division from the disbanded 11th Guards Airborne Division. On 6 January 1959, the 110th Separate Military-Transport Aviation Squadron was formed with the division, equipped with ten Antonov An-2 transports. On 15 August 1960, the 205th Guards Artillery Regiment became the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion. At the same time, the 351st Guards Airborne Regiment transferred to the 105th Guards Airborne Division and was replaced by the 105th's 331st Guards Airborne Regiment. On 27 April 1962, the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion became the 1182nd Guards Artillery Regiment.
As the attention of the Soviet leadership began to shift towards their ability to project force overseas, the need for a rapidly deployable force to spearhead large-scale operations became apparent and the VDV was once again built up as such an air assault force. The Tula Division, from that point until the present day, was to be one of the most frequently-used elements of it. Two of its regiments took part in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. As nationalist unrest grew in the southern republics of the USSR throughout the end of the 1980s, the division was deployed to Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1988 and to Fergana, Uzbekistan, in 1990. Throughout this time the division was commanded by General Alexander Lebed.
In 1991, an attempted coup against the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev took place in Moscow. As the coup faltered, and the plotters lost the initiative while support for Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian SFSR, grew, the plotters called in reinforcements from the Tula Division, in the form of a battalion from the 137th Guards Airborne Regiment. When they arrived, Lebed stated that he had orders to secure the Parliament building, where Yeltsin's supporters were barricaded. He did not, however, give the order for his men, equipped with BMD armoured vehicles, to launch an attack. This may have been because at that point in the coup, the Tamanskaya Division was in the process of switching its own allegiance from the plotters to the parliamentarians, but whatever Lebed's rationale, the episode helped to boost his own public profile immensely. Following the failure of the coup and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, in 1992, he was appointed commander of the Russian 14th Army in Moldova.
The 119th Guards Airborne Regiment joined the division from the 7th Guards Airborne Division in August 1993, replacing the 331st Guards Airborne Regiment, which had been transferred to the 98th Guards Airborne Division.
In 1994, the Russian Army was ordered into the breakaway southern republic of Chechnya by Yeltsin, then President of the Russian Federation, after the refusal of the separatist government to surrender to Moscow's authority, beginning the First Chechen War. Battalions of the Tula Division were attached to 'Group West' (the western element of the three-pronged invasion of Chechnya). They took part, in December that year, in the first Battle of Grozny, helping to capture the city's central railway station, which had proved to be one of the most difficult and costly strategic points in Grozny for the Russians to capture.
In March 1995, the battalions were transferred to the command of 'Group North' and continued fighting, notably around Argun. In May, they withdrew from Chechnya. The division's losses in the first war are unclear: 36 of its soldiers have been confirmed killed in action, but the number missing in action is around 200.
The Second Chechen War began in 1999. With Moscow determined to avoid a repeat of the quagmire that the first war had become, the Russian force committed in 1999 was larger, better equipped and better organised. The Tula Division's contribution to that force was the 51st and 119th Parachute Landing Regiments. Its losses in this war were still considerable but less than in the first: 67 of its soldiers were reported either killed or missing in action. For its actions in the second campaign, the Tula Division was awarded the MoD Pennant.
In 2001, after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, paratroopers from the division were sent to Afghanistan to evacuate the staff of the Russian embassy in Kabul, so as to ensure their safety in the face of the American military campaign in support of the Northern Alliance's advance towards the city.
On 26 April 2004, the Tula Division celebrated its 60th anniversary.
In August 2014 the division's 137th Guards Airborne Regiment had participated in the War in Donbass.
On 13 August 2015, the division was given the honorific name "Tula".
Modern Russian airborne divisions are relatively smaller formations, in manpower terms; typically, they number around over 5,000 men. The Tula Division was until 2005 the exception to this rule, numbering over 7,000 men. The reason for this was that it included 3 Parachute Landing Regiments, whereas the other 3 VDV divisions had only two such regiments. In 2005, however, the 119th Guards Airborne Regiment was disbanded and the division was thus bought essentially into line with the other 3 divisions. As of 2006, the subordinate units of the division are as follows:51st Guards Airborne Regiment, Tula
137th Guards Airborne Regiment, Ryazan
1182nd Guards Artillery Regiment, Yefremov
107th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Naro-Fominsk
322nd Engineer Battalion, Tula
731st Communications Battalion, Tula
43rd Repair Battalion, Tula
110th Transport Squadron, Tula
Major-General Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kazankin (1943–1944)
Major-General Ivan Nikolayevich Vindushev (1944–1946)
Major-General Ivan Nikitich Konev (1946–1947)
Major-General Afanasiy Romanovich Kopichko (1947–1949)
Colonel Aleksandr Dimitriyevich Yepanshin (1949–1951)
Major-General Aleksandr Akimovich Gerasimov (1951–1955)
Major-General Aleksandr Andreyevich Koreshchenko (1955–1960)
Major-General Magomed Tankayevich Tankayev (1960–1961)
Colonel Konstantin Yakovlevich Kurochnik (1961–1964)
Major-General Yuri Mikhailovich Potapov (1964–1969)
Major-General Aleksandr Ivanovich Pitkov (1969–1972)
Major-General Anatoly Mikhailovich Dobrovolsky (1972–1976)
Major-General Yevgeny Nikolayevich Podkolzin (1976–1980)
Major-General Gennady Vasilyevich Filatov (1980–1984)
Major-General Fyodor Ivanovich Serdechny (1984–1988)
Major-General Aleksandr Ivanovich Lebed (1988–1991)
Major-General Aleksandr Petrovich Kolmakov (1991–1993)
Major-General Yevgeny Yuryevich Savilov (1993-2004)
Major-General Andrey Nikolayevich Serdyukov (2004–2007)
Major-General Yevgeny Ustinov (2007)
Colonel Alexander Vyaznikov (2007-2010)
Colonel Alexey Naumets (2010)
Colonel Gennady Anashkin (2010-2011)
Major-General Vladimir Kochetkov (2011-2013)
Major-General Dmitry Glushenkov (2013-2015)
Colonel Pavel Kirsi (2015-present)