A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas, such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, spraygrounds (water playgrounds), lazy rivers, or other recreational bathing, swimming, and barefooting environments. Water parks in more current states of development may also be equipped with some type of artificial surfing or bodyboarding environment such as a wave pool or FlowRider.
Water parks have grown in popularity since their introduction in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The United States has the largest and most concentrated water park market, with over a thousand water parks and dozens of new parks opening each year. Major organizations are IAAPA (International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions) and WWA (World Waterpark Association), which is the industry trade association.
Water parks which emerge from spas tend to more closely resemble mountain resorts, as they become year-round destinations. For example, Splash Universe Water Park Resort, a member of the WWA, is themed to match the community in which it is located. The theme is intended to enhance the community's destination appeal. Therefore, the amusement and leisure-time industry is becoming more concentrated, as winter sports are becoming common themes in summertime water recreation.
A process of concentration can be observed in the hybrid versions of theme-, amusement-, and water parks. Some water parks are more spa-oriented. For example, SchwabenQuellen, a member of European Waterpark Association (EWA), has no water slides; it has instead many saunas, steam rooms, "adventure showers," and relaxation-oriented water play areas.
In the 2000s, an effort was made to reduce long waiting lines by introducing conveyor belts to lift passengers or use water jets.
An unusual feature at a water park is ice skating. Deep River Water Park in northwestern Indiana features ice skating, made possible by cooling pipes installed under their massive plaza during a recent expansion.
Indoor water parks
The first-ever indoor water park was built in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, in 1985 at the West Edmonton Mall as part of the $1.2-billion-dollar Phase III expansion. World Waterpark is the world's second largest indoor water park, at over 225,000 sq ft (20,900 m2) in size. It includes the world's largest indoor wave pool, water slides of varying degrees, tube rides, bungee jumping, and hot tubs. Tropical Islands Resort (Germany), with an area of 710,000 sq ft (66,000 m2), is currently the largest indoor water park in the world.
With five indoor water parks, Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, is recognized as the "Water Park Capital of the World." It showcases several of America's largest indoor and outdoor water parks (see Noah's Ark Water Park). Indoor water parks in Wisconsin Dells debuted in 1994 after the Polynesian Resort Hotel built the first one in the U.S.
Success in extending the tourist season and turning water park resorts into vacation destinations has resulted in tremendous industry growth. Usually, resort hotels featuring massive indoor water parks have been reserved for overnight guests. Companies like Great Wolf Resorts/Great Wolf Lodge and Kalahari Resorts have branched out from their origin in Wisconsin Dells to open new locations around the country. Mt. Olympus Theme and Water Park (formerly Family Land) is another huge water park in the Dells.
The largest indoor water park in the UK is Sandcastle Water Park in Blackpool, England, which opened in 1986.
There are many water parks in southern Europe where the climate suits a long season. For example, in Portugal on the Algarve there are three main parks - Aqualand, Aquashow, and Slide and Splash.
Water play areas
Water play areas are similar to water parks and include urban beaches, splash pads, and smaller collections of water slides in many hotels and public swimming pools.
For example, the Chelsea Hotel in Toronto features a four-story water slide called the Corkscrew.