The Volga Military District (PriVO) was an operational and strategic territorial association of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Russian Federation that existed from 1918 - 1989 and 1992 - 2001.
The district headquarters was located at Kazan, Saratov and Kuibyshev (Samara) at different points in time.
During the Russian Empire from 1864-1917 the Kazan Military District covered the Volga area. The Volga Military District was established on May 4, 1918 on the territory of the Kazan Military District, and included Astrakhan, Saratov, Samara, Simbirsk and Penza Governorates, and the Ural Oblast. Subsequently, the district boundaries were repeatedly changed. In 1941 the district included the Saratov, Kuibyshev, Penza, Tambov, Voronezh areas and the Orel Oblast, Kursk and Stalingrad regions of the RSFSR. The headquarters was located at Saratov.
With the start of and during World War II five armies, 132 divisions and 65 separate regiments, 253 separate battalions were formed in the area. Polish and Czechoslovakian military units were formed on the territory of the Volga Military District.
In October 1945 the 123rd Rifle Corps was at Kuibyshev. It became the 40th Rifle Corps in 1955 and then the 40th Army Corps in 1957, before disbanding in 1960.
On September 14, 1954 in the Totskoye range north of the village Totskoye in the Orenburg Oblast (within the specified period the territory of the Orenburg region belonged to the South Urals Military District) under the leadership of Marshal of the USSR Georgy Zhukov was conducted the Totskoye nuclear exercise with real nuclear weapons. In this doctrine, which were worked out operational issues combined arms attack, was attended by about 45,000 soldiers.
By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 15 January 1974 for their contributions to strengthening the defence capability of the USSR and its armed defence, the Volga and Ural Military Districts were awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
By 1983, the Volga Military District included the territory of the Kuibyshev, Saratov, Ulyanovsk, Penza and Orenburg Oblasts, Tatar, Bashkir, Chuvash, Mari, and Mordovian ASSR. The district headquarters was located in Kuibyshev.
The following military units and formations were part of the district during the late 1980s.43rd Training Motor Rifle Division (Kuibyshev)
65th Motor Rifle Division (Perm)
96th Motor Rifle Division (Kazan)
130th Motor Rifle Division (Kuibyshev)
166th Motor Rifle Division (Belebey)
213th Motor Rifle Division (Totskoye) (also attributed by Feskov et al. 2013)
238th Rear Defence Division (Kuibyshev)
249th Reserve Motor Rifle Division (Yoshkar-Ola)
256th Reserve Motor Rifle Division (Kuibyshev)
274th Reserve Motor Rifle Division (Kryazh)
73rd Reserve Tank Division (Kazan)
74th Reserve Tank Division (Ulyanovsk)
112th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Donguz)
In 1989 the district was merged with the Ural Military District to become the Volga-Ural Military District (PURVO). It was split and then the two districts were merged again in 2001.1918-1919: Ivan Mezhlauk
1924-1927: Alexander Sedyakin
1931-1932: Boris Shaposhnikov
1932-1933: Ivan Fedko
1933-1937: Pavel Dybenko
1937: Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky
1937: Mikhail Grigoryevich Yefremov
1938-1939: Kirill Meretskov
1940-1941: Vasyl Herasymenko