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Kingdom  Animalia
Family  †Protoceratidae
Scientific name  Synthetoceras tricornatus
Rank  Genus
Class  Mammalia
Species  †S. tricornatus
Phylum  Chordata
Order  Even-toed ungulate
Synthetoceras httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsaa
Similar  Protoceratidae, Syndyoceras, Even‑toed ungulate, Protoceras, Aepycamelus


Synthetoceras tricornatus is a large, extinct protoceratid artiodactyl, endemic to North America from the Miocene epoch, 13.6—5.33 Ma, existing for approximately 8.27 million years.


Synthetoceras tricornatus


Synthetoceras synthetoceras DeviantArt

Synthetoceras was named by Stirton (1932). It is the type genus of Synthetoceratinae, Synthetoceratini. It was assigned to Protoceratidae by Stirton (1932), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); to Synthetoceratinae by Hulbert and Whitmore (2006); and to Synthetoceratini by Webb (1981), Prothero (1998), Webb et al. (2003) and Prothero and Ludtke (2007).


Synthetoceras white background

With a length of 2 m (6 ft 8 in), Synthetoceras was the largest member of its family. It was also the last, and had what is considered to be the protoceratids' strangest set of horns. The two horns above its eyes looked fairly normal and similar to those of many modern horned mammals, but on its snout it had a bizarre, long horn with a forked tip that gave it a Y shape. Only males had this strange horn, and they probably used it in territorial fights.

Body mass

Synthetoceras synthetoceras DeviantArt

Three fossil specimens of Synthetoceras were measured by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass. The specimens were determined to weigh:

  • Specimen 1: 332.4 kg (730 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 228.3 kg (500 lb)
  • Fossil distribution

    Fossils have been recovered from:

    Synthetoceras tricornatus
  • Stage Hill II, Arikaree Group, Wildcat Hills Beds Formation, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska
  • Guernsey Site, Upper Harrison Beds Formation, Platte County, Wyoming

  • Synthetoceras


    Synthetoceras Wikipedia