| Kolyo Milev (BSP)|
Sliven (Bulgarian: ) is the eighth-largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and industrial centre of Sliven Province and municipality.
Sliven is famous for its Bulgarian Haiduts who fought against the Ottoman Turks in the 19th century and is known as the "City of the 100 Voyvodi", a Voyvoda being a leader of Haiduts.
The famous rocky massif Sinite Kamani (?????? ??????, "The Blue Rocks") and the associated national park, the fresh air and the mineral springs offer diverse opportunities for leisure and tourism. Investors are exploring the opportunity to use the famous local wind (Bora) for the production of electricity.
Another point of interest and a major symbol of the city as featured on the coat of arms, is over thousand-year-old Stariyat Briast (??????? ?????, "The Old Elm"), a huge Smooth-leaved Elm in the center of the city. In times of the Ottoman rule Turkish officials used to hang Bulgarian revolutionaries on it. Today the city is helping the tree live on by frequent evaluations and reinforcing its base. It was elected Bulgarian tree of the year in 2013. On 19th of March 2014 the results of online poll were revealed at a ceremony in the European Parliament. The Old Elm was voted European tree of the year 2014.
Sliven Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Sliven.
Sliven is located 300 km east of Bulgarias capital Sofia, 100 km from Bourgas, the countrys largest commercial port, 130 km from the border with Greece and 130 km from the border with Turkey. It is located in close proximity to the cities of Yambol and Nova Zagora.
West of the city lies the so-called Peach Valley which contains large peach orchards. The city is also known for its mineral baths whose water is used to treat diseases of the liver and nervous system.
The most visited geographical location and attraction in the city is the Karandila (?????????). It is a hilltop 1050m above sealevel, with great sights overlooking the city. On the Karandila is the rock formation Halkata (?a?????, "The Ring"). It is a rock protrusion with an interesting, yet peculiar hole in the center. According to myth, one would have their most sincere wish granted upon passing through the ring. Karandila is the site of the annual Karakachani festival, organized by the Federation of the Cultural and Educational Associations of Karakachans (?????) in Bulgaria each July.
Karandila is located in the nature park Sinite Kamani (?????? ??????), whose peak Bulgarka (????????, 1181 m.) is the highest in the eastern Balkan mountain.
Remains of the oldest settlements on the territory of Sliven date back to around 6000 BCE of the Neolithic. Ruins of a Thracian settlement dating to around 5th–3rd century BCE as well as Thracian ceramics and Hellenistic coins have been discovered in the area of Hisarlaka — a small hill in Sliven. In antiquity it was known as Selymnos (???????? in Greek). The area occupied by present-day Sliven has in the past been settled by the Thracian tribes Asti, Kabileti and Seleti. These tribes held their independence until time of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great who conquered them.
The 2nd century BCE marked the beginning of the Roman conquests of northeastern Thracia. Sliven became part of the Roman Empire around 72–71 BCE when the Thracian Kabile and later Greek cities of Kabile and Apolonia are conquered. With the emergence of the Roman Empire the region of the city became part of the Thracian province of the Roman Empire.
A new stage in the citys history began around 4th–2nd century BCE. The first written records of the settlements name, Tuida/Suida/Tsuida date to this period. This name is most likely of Thracian origin. Its etymology is currently not understood. Known as "?slimye" by the Turks, during Ottoman rule it was a sanjak centre in first Rumelia eyalet, then Silistre (Özi) eyalet, Edirne vilayet, finally being for a short period a centre of a department in the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia before its inclusion in the Principality of Bulgaria in 1885.
In more modern times, Sliven became one of the most significant cultural centres during the Bulgarian National Revival, with much of its old heritage still preserved and enriched its heritage and today offers to its citizens and visitors a lot of opportunities for cultural life. It served as the birthplace of many prominent Bulgarians who contributed to the enlightenment such as Hadzhi Dimitar, Dobri Chintulov, Evgeniy Chapkanov, Ivan Seliminski and many others. Another notable native is Anton Pann who composed the Romanian national anthem. Another notable resident is Yordan Letchkov, whose goal in the 1994 World Cup eliminated defending champion Germany. Letchkov was mayor of Sliven from 2003 to 2011.
The economy of Sliven has centered around industry since the early 19th century. In 1834, Dobri Zhelyazkov established the first factory in Bulgarian lands, thus starting industrial development in Bulgaria. Sliven was one of the largest industrial centers in Bulgaria, playing an important role during the Bulgarian National Revival. It has long-lived traditions in textiles, machine-building, glass-making, chemical production, and the technical ?nd food industries.
There are many buildings in the city built in the National Revival Architecture style, including the Hadzhi Dimitur House-Museum. It is in the south western part of the town and shows visitors a complex of a native memorial home and an old traditional inn. The Dobry Chintulov Memorial House Museum is on the North side of Sliven; it was the home of the Bulgarian revival teacher and poet Dobry Chintulov. The citys main theater is located at the main city square. It is named after the Sliven native Stefan Kirov (?????? ?????) who was a prominent actor and director.