Before Independence, Samana was a part of Patiala Kingdom (PEPSU). Now it is a part of Patiala District of Punjab (India).
It has an average elevation of 240 metres (787 feet) with Latitude 30.1583 and Longitude 76.1931.It is located on State Highway(SH-10) between Patiala and Patran.
It traces its history to the days of Raja Jaipal who ruled over, among others, the territories of Bhatinda, Samana. It fell into the hands of Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Gauri after the conquest of Ajmer and Delhi and was entrusted to Qutb-ud-Din Aibek in 1192, along with the territories of Ghuram and Sunam. With the increasing importance of Sirhind under the Mughals, Samana received a little set-back.
While Samana is said to be a place of saints and scholars during the Mughal days, it is notorious also for its professional executioners, who served at Delhi and Sirhind. Sayyad Jala-ud-Din, who executed Guru Teg Bahadur at Delhi in 1675 was from Samana. Beg brothers, who mercilessly butchered the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh also belonged to Samana. This hated town was therefore one of the first places to have been sacked by Banda Bahadur.Banda defeated the faujdar of Samana in the Battle of Samana. But the Mughals were yet too strong for the rising power of Sikhs and Samana had to be given up by them towards the end of 1710 AD.It was retaken in about 1742 AD by Baba Ala Singh, the founder of the Patiala ruling family and was recognized as a part of his territories by Ahamd Shah Durani.
As per 2011 India census, population statistics of Samana city:
Total Population: 54,072
Male Population: 28,309 (52.35 %)
Female Population: 25,763 (47.65 %)
Female Sex Ratio: 910
Literacy Rate: 85.85 %
Male Literacy Rate: 90.69 %
Female Literacy Rate: 78.58 %
Samana is one of the 117 Vidhan Sabha Constituencies of Punjab. It's constituency no. is 116.
List of MLAs of Samana Constituency1957 : Harchand singh (INC)
1962 : Chaudhary Bhajan Lal (INC)
1967 : Chaudhary Bhajan Lal (INC)
1969 : Pritam singh (SAD)
1972 : Gurdev singh (SAD)
1977 : Gurdev Singh (SAD)
1980 : Sant Ram Singla (INC)
1985 : Hardial Singh Rajla(SAD)
1992 : Amrinder Singh (SAD)
1997 : Jagtar Singh Rajla (SAD)
2002 : Surjit Singh Rakhra (SAD)
2007 : Brahm Mohindra (INC)
2012 : Surjit Singh Rakhra (SAD)
2017 : Rajinder Singh (INC)
Panchmukhi Mandir: Panchmukhi Mandir is one of the earliest temples of Samana. It is a large and beautiful temple devoted to Lord Shiva. Every year, a grand festival is celebrated in this temple on the occasion of Mahashivaratri. Mata Naina Devi Mandir is also there inside the temple complex.
Gurudwara Thada Sahib: Thada Sahib is a beautiful Historical Gurudwara. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji came to this place when he was on the way to Delhi. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji came here to the place of Sai Anayat Ali. Adjoining was the area of a cruel Muslim, who had thrown cow bones in the well when Guru Sahib's sikh went there for water. After that Guru Sahib got a well dug there.
Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary: Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary is about 15 km from Samana. It was one of the important hunting reserves of the erstwhile rulers of Patiala state. It was declared a protected forest and then as a sanctuary under the Fauna of Patiala Act. The sanctuary has a good ecological value and habitat for number of wild animals.
Panj Peer Mazar: It is a major pilgrimage centre for Shia Muslims. Sayyid Mash-had Ali was buried here about 1200 years ago and the town of Samana also takes its name from his mother. According to scholars of Muslim history, the discovery of the mazar is significant in that there is no mazar of any Imam in South Asia.
New Gaushaala: It is one of largest Gaushaalas in Punjab. It is built on the banks of Bhakra, on Samana-Patiala road. It is fully accomplished with world class infrastructure and facilities. It covers 12 acres area. People visit here on the daily basis and offers charity and help.
Pingla Ashram: It is a charitable center and home for mentally retarded, handicapped and elderly helpless people.It was started by Dr.Hari Chand.It is being operated by the blessings of respected Hari chand g and handling by committee of reputed people of Samana. It is managed by Sh.Inderjit Dawar for more than a period of 51 years as a successor of Dr.Hari chand without accepting any serving fees of his duty.It is run by the donations from generous people of local town, adjacent villages and abroad.
Maisar Mandir: A famous Maisar Mandir, dedicated to goddess Durga is located on the border of Samana and Shadipur (Haryana). Every year, a grand fair is organized here on the occasion of Navaratri.
Shri Sai Baba Mandir: It is located at the distance of 3 km from Samana.
Shri Durga Mata Mandir: It's a newly renovated beautiful temple located inside Aggarwal Dharamshala.Adarsh Nursing College
Dr Johri Degree College
Nancy college of Education.
Public College, Samana
Acharya Devinder Muni Jain Model High School, Shehajpura Road, Samana
Aggarsain International public school Samana
Akal Academy School Fatehgarh Channa
Budha Dal Public School, Samana
D.A.V Public School, Samana
D.A.V Public school, Badshahpur
D.A.V Public school, Kakrala.
D.A.V Public school, Kularan.
Dayanand Model High School, Samana
Holy heart public school, Samana
Mind Glow Academy, Samana
Model public Sr.Sec. school Samana
Premier public school Samana
Public Sr. Sec School Samana
St. Lawrence Sr. Sec. School, Samana
Shivalik multipurpose public school
SRS Vidyapeeth Patiala Road Samana
The Winners Academy, Samana