Kalpana Kalpana (Editor)


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Scientific name

RuminantiamorphaSpaulding et al., 2009

RuminantiaScopoli, 1777

cattle: 18 – 22 years, sheep: 10 – 12 years

Water buffalo: 1.3 – 1.3 m, Reindeer: 85 – 150 cm

cattle: 1,100 kg, sheep: 45 – 160 kg

Reindeer: 60 – 80 km/h, Chamois: 50 km/h

Gestation period
Cattle: 283 days, Sheep: 152 days

Lower classifications
deer, Ovis, Bovinae, giraffe, goats

Ruminantia is a taxon within the order Artiodactyla that includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope. All members of the Ruminantia employ foregut fermentation and are ruminants: they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way to begin with, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to rechew it and thus extract the maximum possible food value.

Ruminantia Digestive System in Ruminantia New Science Biology


Ruminantia Classification The Giraffe

Ruminantiamorpha is a total clade of artiodactyls defined, according to Spaulding et al., as "Ruminantia plus all extinct taxa more closely related to extant members of Ruminantia than to any other living species." Spaulding grouped some genera of the family Anthracotheriidae within Ruminantiamorpha (but not in Ruminantia), but placed others within Ruminantiamorpha's sister clade, Cetancodontamorpha.

The Tragulidae are the basal family in Ruminantia.

The ancestral Ruminantia karyotype is 2n = 48, similar to that of cetartiodactyls.

Ruminantia tolweborgtreeToLimageselk11935250ajpg

  • Suborder Suina: pigs and peccaries
  • Suborder Tylopoda: camels and llamas, 8 living species in 3 genera
  • Suborder Cetruminantia: ruminants, whales and hippos
  • unranked Ruminantia
  • Infraorder Tragulina (paraphyletic)
  • Family †Prodremotheriidae
  • Family †Hypertragulidae
  • Family †Praetragulidae
  • Family †Protoceratidae
  • Family Tragulidae: chevrotains, 6 living species in 4 genera
  • Family †Archaeomerycidae
  • Family †Lophiomerycidae
  • Infraorder Pecora
  • Family Cervidae: deer and moose, 49 living species in 16 genera
  • Family †Gelocidae
  • Family †Palaeomerycidae
  • Family †Hoplitomerycidae
  • Family †Climacoceratidae
  • Family Giraffidae: giraffe and okapi, 2 living species in 2 genera
  • Family Antilocapridae: pronghorn, one living species in one genus
  • Family †Leptomerycidae
  • Family Moschidae: musk deer, 4 living species in one genus
  • Family Bovidae: cattle, goats, sheep, and antelope, 135 living species in 48 genera

  • Ruminantia Palaeos Vertebrates Cetartiodactyla Ruminantia

    Not all ruminants belong to the Ruminantia. Tylopoda and Hippopotamidae are classified as pseudoruminants. A number of other large grazing mammals, e.g. horses and kangaroos, employ hindgut fermentation as an adaptation for surviving on large quantities of low-grade food.

    Ruminantia Natural History Collections Ruminantia


    Ruminantia Wikipedia