Girish Mahajan

Antilocapridae

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Kingdom  Animalia
Superfamily  Giraffoidea
Height  Pronghorn: 81 – 100 cm
Higher classification  Giraffoidea
Gestation period  Pronghorn: 235 days
Order  Artiodactyla
Scientific name  Antilocapridae
Mass  Pronghorn: 40 – 65 kg
Phylum  Chordata
Antilocapridae img11deviantartnet9035i2013356facervidae
Family  Antilocapridae Gray, 1866
Similar  Pronghorn, Mammal, Even‑toed ungulate, Chevrotain, Giraffidae

Pronghorn antilocapridae antilocapra americana male


The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. It bears small, forked horns.

Contents

Antilocapridae Antilocapridae

In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants. They have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, and are similar in body shape to antelopes. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, but, uniquely, they are shed outside of the breeding season, and subsequently regrown. Their lateral toes are even further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being entirely lost, and only the cannon bones remaining. Antilocaprids have the same dental formula as most other ruminants: 0.0.3.33.1.3.3.

Antilocapridae ADW antilocapridaejpg

Taxonario 1 antilocapridae


Evolution

Antilocapridae Antilocapridae

The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species. Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or even six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros, with smooth, slightly curved horns, Paracosoryx, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, Ramoceros, with fan-shaped horns, and Hayoceros, with four horns.

Species

Antilocapridae Antilocapridae
  • Subfamily Antilocaprinae
  • Tribe Antilocaprini
  • Genus Antilocapra
  • Antilocapra americana - pronghorn
  • A. a. americana - Common pronghorn
  • A. a. mexicana - Mexican pronghorn
  • A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn
  • A. a. sonoriensis - Sonoran pronghorn
  • A. a. oregona - Oregon pronghorn
  • Antilocapra maquinensis
  • Antilocapra pacifica
  • Genus †Texoceros
  • Texoceros altidens
  • Texoceros edensis
  • Texoceros guymonensis
  • Texoceros minorei
  • Texoceros texanus
  • Texoceros vaughani
  • Tribe †Ilingoceratini
  • Genus †Ilingoceros
  • Ilingoceros alexandrae
  • Ilingoceros schizoceros
  • Genus †Ottoceros
  • Ottoceros peacevalleyensis
  • Genus †Plioceros
  • Plioceros blicki
  • Plioceros dehlini
  • Plioceros floblairi
  • Genus †Sphenophalos
  • Sphenophalos garciae
  • Sphenophalos middleswarti
  • Sphenophalos nevadanus
  • Tribe †Proantilocaprini
  • Genus †Proantilocapra
  • Proantilocapra platycornea
  • Genus †Osbornoceros
  • Osbornoceros osborni
  • Tribe Stockoceratini
  • Genus †Capromeryx - (junior synonym Breameryx)
  • Capromeryx arizonensis - (junior synonym B. arizonensis)
  • Capromeryx furcifer - (junior synonyms B. minimus, C. minimus)
  • Capromeryx gidleyi - (junior synonym B. gidleyi)
  • Capromeryx mexicana - (junior synonym B. mexicana)
  • Capromeryx minor - (junior synonym B. minor)
  • Capromeryx tauntonensis
  • Genus †Ceratomeryx
  • Ceratomeryx prenticei
  • Genus †Hayoceros
  • Hayoceros barbouri
  • Hayoceros falkenbachi
  • Genus †Hexameryx
  • Hexameryx simpsoni
  • Genus †Hexobelomeryx
  • Hexobelomeryx fricki
  • Hexobelomeryx simpsoni
  • Genus †Stockoceros
  • Stockoceros conklingi (junior synonym S. onusrosagris)
  • Genus †Tetrameryx
  • Tetrameryx irvingtonensis
  • Tetrameryx knoxensis
  • Tetrameryx mooseri
  • Tetrameryx shuleri
  • Tetrameryx tacubayensis
  • Subfamily Merycodontinae
  • Genus †Cosoryx
  • Cosoryx agilis
  • Cosoryx cerroensis
  • Cosoryx furcatus
  • Cosoryx ilfonensis
  • Cosoryx trilateralis
  • Genus †Meryceros
  • Meryceros crucensis
  • Merycerus crucianus
  • Meryceros hookwayi
  • Meryceros joraki
  • Meryceros major
  • Meryceros nenzelensis
  • Meryceros warreni
  • Genus †Merycodus
  • Merycodus furcatus
  • Merycodus grandis
  • Merycodus necatus
  • Merycodus prodromus
  • Merycodus sabulonis
  • Genus †Paracosoryx
  • Paracosoryx alticornis
  • Paracosoryx burgensis
  • Paracosoryx dawesensis
  • Paracosoryx furlongi
  • Paracosoryx loxoceros
  • Paracosoryx nevadensis
  • Paracosoryx wilsoni
  • Genus †Ramoceros
  • Ramoceros brevicornis
  • Ramoceros coronatus
  • Ramoceros marthae
  • Ramoceros merriami
  • Ramoceros osborni
  • Ramoceros palmatus
  • Ramoceros ramosus
  • Genus †Submeryceros
  • Submeryceros crucianus
  • Submeryceros minimus
  • Submeryceros minor

  • Antilocapridae Various Mammals of the Antilocapridae Family Photographic Print at

    References

    Antilocapridae Wikipedia


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