Reinhold Wilhelm Buchholz (2 October 1837, Frankfurt an der Oder – 17 April 1876) was a German zoologist who made contributions in the fields of herpetology, carcinology and ichthyology.
He studied medicine at the University of Königsberg, and in 1872 became an associate professor of zoology at the University of Greifswald. In 1876 he was appointed a full professor and director of the zoological museum at Greifswald, but unfortunately he died soon afterwards.
In 1869–70 he participated as a scientist on the Second German North Polar Expedition, aboard the schooner Hansa. From 1872, with Anton Reichenow, he was stationed in western equatorial Africa, where he conducted zoological research in Kamerun, Gabon and Fernando Pó.
He was the taxonomic authority or co-authority of numerous zoological taxa. With naturalist Wilhelm Peters, he described the African toad genus Nectophryne as well as several herpetological species. He also has a number of species named after him; two examples being Raiamas buchholzi and Pantodon buchholzi. While in West Africa, he also collected botanical specimens, and in 1886, Adolf Engler named the plant genus Buchholzia (family Capparaceae) after him.
Buchholzbukta, a bight on the eastern coast of Spitzbergen is named in his honor.