Website Official website
Lok sabha constituencies Pune, Baramati, Shirur
Major highways NH-4, NH-9, NH-50
Area 15,642 km²
Administrative division Pune division
|Colleges and Universities Savitribai Phule Pune University|
Points of interest Shaniwar Wada, Aga Khan Palace, Sinhagad, Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati, Raja Dinkar Kelkar M
Destinations Pune, Lonavla, Khandala, Baramati, Junnar
Similar Pimpri Chinchwad, Hadapsar, Baramati
Lohagad fort lonavala pune district
Pune (District) is situated in Maharashtra state of India. Pune city is the district headquarters. In the most recent census on 2011, the total population of the district was 9,426,959, making it the fourth most populous district in India (out of 640). Urban population comprises 58.08% of the total population. The current population of Pune urban agglomerate is over 5 million.
- Lohagad fort lonavala pune district
- Map of Pune Maharashtra
- Malik Ahmad establishment of Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar 1490
- Shahaji Bhosale
- Under rule of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj 17th century
- Prosperity of village communities under Shivaji 16471680
- After Sambhaji great political ferment in the Deccan
- Pune becomes centre of movements in Maharashtra 1714
- Last Peshwa Baji Rao II 17951817
- Yashwantrao Holkar
- British rule 1818 1947
- Rivers and lakes and dams
- Higher education
- Primary and secondary education
- Pune District Court
- Cities and towns
- Pilgrimage centres
- Railway lines
- Medical facilities
Map of Pune, Maharashtra
Malik Ahmad: establishment of Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar (1490)
With the establishment of the Nizamshahi rule with Ahmednagar as its headquarters, practically the whole of the Pune territory, perhaps with the exception of Indapur, which still continued to be under at least the nominal suzerainty of Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur, came under the unified control of the Nizamshahi. The territory was formed into a separate district or sarkar, with sub-divisions called paragana and smaller ranges called prant or desh. From such records as are available it appears that the revenue collection was mostly farmed amongst the important chieftains who were henchmen of the Nizamshahi. There was indeed an officer of the Nizamshahi who was charged with the responsibility of supervising and administering the functions of police and criminal justice, civil suits, as a rule, seem to have been referred to local panchayats.
Ahmednagar king had to bear the brunt of a heavy attack from the Mughal armies which converged on the capital in 1595. It was at this time that, with a view to enlisting the strongest possible local support against the Mughal invaders and to stabilise the administration of the territories under Ahmednagar rule, a policy of conferring on local Maratha chieftains increasing power was initiated by the Ahmednagar rulers. Amongst the chieftains so favoured was Maloji Bhosale, who was made a Rana in 1595, and the districts of Pune and Supa were conferred upon him as a jagir. Maloji Bhosale was also given charge of the forts of Shivneri and Chakan, which have played a very important part in the early political history of the Pune territory. Even before his coming into the title of Raja, Maloji had several watans as patil for a number of villages, including Verul which at that time was a part of Vidarbha. Maloji had married Dipabai, sister of Jagpalrao Naik Nimbalkar, the deshmukh of Phaltan. Maloji Bhonsle was thus one of the most exalted and at the same time the best connected chieftains of the Maratha country at this critical juncture when the Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar was entering upon a very intense struggle for existence against the on-coming forces of the Mughals. In the year 1600, Ahmednagar was captured by the Mughals. Thus, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, the suzerainty over the possessions of the Ahmednagar kingdom, including the Pune territory, passed to the Mughals. Malik Ambar, the faithful minister of Nizam Shah, raised Murtaza II to the Nizamshahi throne with its temporary headquarters at Junnar. For nearly a generation, Malik Ambar continued to guide the destinies of the Nizamshahi kingdom, and as the Pune area was practically the seat of the Nizamshahi government, the good effects of the all-sided reforms of Malik Ambar were witnessed in the administrative and economic life of the region. By the time Malik Ambar died in 1626, the revenue system of the Pune area had been put on a sound and liberal basis. The farming system which was in vogue for a long time and which raised its head again until the advent of British rule in all periods of political unsettlement was at least of the time being put a stop to.
Shahaji Bhosale, who had inherited from his father Maloji Bhosle a personal interest in devoting himself to the cause of Nizam Shah and who in fact had done a good deal to strengthen the cause of his master, found that both his master and his more favourite advisers, instead of appreciating the value of his services even failed to trust his advice. He, therefore, in 1629 broke with Nizam Shah and retired to Pune. But with a view perhaps to securing his own jagirs which would be endangered, he offered his allegiance to the Mughals, who besides confirming his jagirs conferred on him the command of 5,000 horses. It is not relevant to the purpose of this administrative history of the Pune district to go into the pros and cons of the successive changes in allegiance that Shahaji at this time seems to have effected. It is of interest, however, to note that while over a large part of the seventeenth century the Pune area continued to the administered as a jagir, first of Maloji Bhosle and then of his direct successors, the ultimate sovereignty of the place kept on changing according as the Bhosles transferred their allegiance from one to another sovereign. In fact, in 1632 Shahaji forsook the Mughals and accepted the friendship of the Adilshahi rulers of Bijapur, who were the traditional rivals of the Nizamshahi Sultans of Ahmednagar. It seems, however, that Shahji had continued to look upon the Ahmednagar regime as his first concern, and he used the support that he received from Bijapur to raise an infant to the Ahmednagar gadi and to proclaim him Nizam Shah. The Mughals, whose pressure on the Deccan was now increasing and who were grievously offended at the change of attitude on the part of Shahaji, made a determined attack on Pune and in 1635 Pune is said to have been raised to the ground. After this success of the Mughals, the Ahmednagar kingdom ceased to exist, its territory being divided between the Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Mughals. In this scheme of division Pune fell to Bijapur. Shahaji for some time refused to surrender Junnar, which was the very seat of the foundation of the Nizamshahi dynasty. But this he had ultimately to surrender. Shahaji, however, seems to have enjoyed sufficient importance with the hostile powers to be called upon even in defeat to play an important part in the administration of the new regime. Not only were his own jagirs confirmed, thus continuing the direct connection of the Pune area with the Bhosle family, but also his services along with those of Murarpant, the Bijapur minister, were actively employed to settle the new lands that had passed under the control of Bijapur. It was in this connection that when Shahaji went on his Karnatak expeditions that he left had passed under the control of Bijapur. It was in this connection that when Shahaji went on his Karnatak expeditions that he left his son Shivaji with his mother Jijabai at Pune, making his trusted servant Dadaji Kondadeo responsible for the smooth working of the jagir estates and for the upbringing and education of Shivaji. It is of interest to note that among the reforms that Dadaji Kondadeo is said to have introduced at his time was the system of charging one-fourth of the cash equivalent of the yield of land as a permanent revenue demand. The Fasli year was also officially introduced at this time. Either because the mawals, i.e., the western portion of the Pune district, were politically more important or because they had a comparatively secure agriculture, Dadaji is said to have given a large part of his attention to them. It was during this period that one of the best known sights of later day Pune, the vestiges of which are still seen in what is called the Jeejamata gardens was constructed and called the Rang Mahal or the Lal Mahal. In so far as Shivaji had any official residence in Pune this was the place which he inhabited. Dadaji died in 1647, and Shivaji almost naturally took charge of all the responsibility that devolved on him as deputy of his father.
Under rule of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj (17th century)
It is not necessary in the present context to refer to the well-known traits of Shivaji objectives and policy which has already assumed a purposeful shape by the time Dadaji died. Shivaji signalised his succession to independent authority by taking possession of Kondana by bribing the Musalman commander of the fort, a method much subtler than the one which he had to employ for its conquest at a later date. With the acquisition of Kondana, which occupies a key situation in the Pune territory, it was easy for Shivaji to consolidate his authority over the whole territory between Chakan and Nira, that is, practically the whole of the Pune district. The headquarters of Shivaji were moved to Rajgad in 1648, and it was not until a year later, When Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur, sensing serious danger in the movements of Shivaji, imprisoned Shahaji as a hostage, that Shivaji held his hand in the progress of his expansionist schemes.
Shivaji accepts post of mansabdar under Mughal Emperor. The means that Shivaji adopted to extricate both himself and his father from the wrath of the Bijapur Government are very revealing. Instead of making any direct overtures to Bijapur, he secured from the Emperor at Delhi, who then was Shah Jahan, the post of mansabdar with command over 5,000 horses. The Bijapur sultan had to accept this submission as adequate guarantee of Shivaji's loyalty, and Shahaji was released. In a way, however, the acceptance by Shivaji of a subordinate status vis-a-vis the Mughal emperor helped, at least for the time being, to strengthen Mughal rule in the Pune district. The northern and north-western part of Pune was still held by the Mughals, and it was only after the death of Shah Jahan and during the period of the uncertainly attending the succession to the imperial throne that Shivaji was able to shake off Mughal rule in this part of the district. It was in this context that Shivaji encouraged, if he did not actually lead, the Kolis in that part against Mughal rule. The revolt did not finally succeed, as Aurangzeb, who by then had moved into the Deccan, through his captains succeeded in infliction a severe defeat on the Kolis. Many of the insurgent leaders were put to the sword at Junnar, where the Kala Chabutra still stands as a monument to that terrific act of punishment. Aurangzeb next made an attempt to win over Shivaji to his side in his fight against his brothers. But Shivaji's policy consisted in taking advantage of rivalries among the claimants to the Delhi throne to enhance and consolidate his power in Pune and in the wider Deccan territory and he spurned these advances.
Prosperity of village communities under Shivaji (1647–1680)
On the whole, however, it must be said that during Shivaji's stay and activities at Pune, the ordinary life of the village communities in that district continued to prosper. Not only were the indigenous crops regularly raised but such comparatively foreign plants as cotton and wheat were extensively cultivated, especially in the north-western part of the district.
After Sambhaji: great political ferment in the Deccan
The period that followed the death of Sambhaji was one of great political ferment in the Deccan, and the Pune territory witnessed major fluctuations of administrative authority.
Pune becomes centre of movements in Maharashtra (1714)
It was not until Balaji Vishwanath, with his sons and Abaji Purandare, offered some opposition in the interest of Shahu that the situation returned to normal. This, however, was not easily achieved.
First Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath (1714–1720). In the next year, 1715, Balaji Vishwanth induced the Mughal agent for the Pune district, Baji Kadam, who still continued to exercise de jure authority in the place, to make over that authority to the Peshwa on the promise that the estates of Rambhaji Nimbalkar, captain of the Nizam's army, would be respected. Thus was consolidated for the first time the authority of a successor of Shivaji in the Pune district with Pune as the effective seat of Government. From this time also commences a powerful trend in Maratha history which had as its objective the expansion of especially towards the north. In 1718, Balaji was sent by Shahu to Delhi to assist the Sayyads, and in return for this obligation Muhammad Shah, the then Emperor at Delhi, conferred on Shahu the title for Pune, Supa, Baramati, Indapur and Junnar as Maratha swaraj. It will thus be seen that by the time Baji Rao became Peshwa in 1721, the authority of the Satara Chhatrapati was fully established, both de jure and de facto, in the Pune territory.
Last Peshwa, Baji Rao II (1795–1817)
In 1797, a clash occurred between the Arab troops in the employ of the Peshwa and the soldiers of the subsidiary battalion under Capt. Boyd maintained by the Peshwa. As a result of this clash, no less than 100 persons lost their lives and there was a general looting of shops. In the same year, Nana Fadnavis's own house was attacked by an officer os Shinde's army, named Sarjerao Ghatge. Fighting in the streets on this occasion is said to have gone on for a whole day and night. Baji Rao II in his vacillating policy was thrown more and more into the arms of designing and ambitious chieftains like Daulatrao Shinde. Both Daulatrao and his lieutenants like Ghatge showed not the slightest consideration for the rights or interests of the peaceful population of the district. Baji Rao, who had promised to give two crores of rupees to Daulatrao and found himself without funds to back that promise, permitted Daulatrao to raise the money from the people of Pune. It was only natural that such a surrender of authority should have emboldened Daulatrao not only to levy his exactions from the merchants of the city but also to ingratiate himself into his benefactor's grace and wreak a private vengeance of his own by singling out for special attention the reputed or suspected partisans of Nana Fadnavis.
Whatever little influence-and it was little indeed-that Nana Fadnavis exercised after the accession to the peshwaship of Baji Rao II was finally brought to an end when in March 1800 Nana Fadnavis died. Daulatrao Shinde now became all-powerful, and both he and Baji Rao mulcted all their political opponents mercilessly. The influence of Shinde on the Peshwa evoked a feeling of opposition in Holkar, who attacked and defeated the combined forces of the Peshwa and Shinde at Hadapsar near Pune in October 1802. For a time Holkar made Amrit Rao the Peshwa in place of Baji Rao, who on his run ultimately joined the English, and by the treaty of Bassein, purchased his safety and his position as the Peshwa at the cost of his own independence and of the freedom of his people. When Baji Rao approached Pune, Amrit Rao, it is said, desired to burn the city rather than hand it over to his brother. The arrival in time, however, of General Wellesley prevented that disaster. The city, thus saved from the hands of its human masters, was not, however, saved from the powers of nature, which was particularly unkind to the district in the year 1803–1804.
British rule (1818-1947)
Though Pune was surrendered on 17 November 1817, the district was not reduced until May 1818. After the capture of Pune the British troops naturally turned their attention to the capture of the de jure seat of Maratha power, namely, Satara, which was taken on 10 February 1818. It was only after the capture of Satara and the flight of Baji Rao away to the north that a proclamation was issued by the Company's Government taking over the territory of the Peshwas. The forts of Sinhgad, Purandar, Chakan, Lohogad, and one or two other forts in the district held out for a couple of months longer. Sinhgad was captured on 3 March 1818 and Purandar on 16 March. On 3 May, with the surrender of Jivadhan, near the Nana-pass, the last of the forts passed into the hands of the company. Within a month, Baji Rao himself surrendered to Sir John Malcolm in North India, and thus from every stand-point the conquest of the Peshwa's dominions, including the Pune district, was complete.
Elphistone appointed commissioner and administrative boundaries of the district almost intact. The administrative boundaries of the Pune district have not, except for the recent merger of a large part of the Bhor State area, altered materially since the start of the 20th century. The merger of certain talukas of Bhor State in the Pune district, though it constitutes an important administrative event for the State as a whole, does not materially add either to the area or to the population of the district. The only practical effect of this merger for the Pune district is that an additional taluka, called Bhor Taluka, and a new Mahal, Vele Mahal, have been included in its jurisdiction.
Pune District is in the western region in Maharashtra in India. It is bounded by Thane District to the northwest, Raigad District to the west, Satara District to the south, Solapur District to the southeast, and Ahmednagar District to the north and northeast.
Pune district lies in the Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountain range and it extends on to the Deccan Plateau on the east. Pune stands on the leeward side of the Western Ghats. Pune is at an altitude of 559m.(1863 ft.). Pune district is located between 17.5° to 19.2° North and 73.2° to 75.1° East. In Pune district, there are two municipal corporations, namely Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Pimpri-Chinchawad Municipal Corporation (PCMC).
Pimpri Chinchwad is located at the West of Pune city, touching the Pune- Mumbai National highway. The corporation covers the area of Nigdi, Akurdi, Pimpri, Chinchwad and Bhosari. The said area is developed by MIDC as an industrial zone.
Average rainfall in the district is 600 to 700 mm. This is usually during the monsoon months from July – October. Moderate temperatures are mainly observed here. The rainfall is unpredictable in tune with the Indian monsoon. Summers here begin from early March to July. Summers are dry and hot. The temperature ranges from 20 °C to 38 °C, though at the peak they may reach 40 °C.
From November to February, is the winter season. Temperatures at the peak drop to single digits but usually they hover around 7 °C to 12 °C sometimes lowers up to 3 °C. January to March are the months with moderate temperatures. In year due rainfall stress in June, and up to 20 September agriculture sector come in danger.
Rivers and lakes and dams
The major rivers of the district are Pushpavati, Krushnavati, Kukadi, Meena, Ghod, Bhima, Bhama, Andhra, Indryani, Pavna, Mula, Mutha, Ambi, Mose, Shivganga, Kanandi, Gunjavni, Velvandi, Neera, Karha, and Velu.
Some major dams are Yedgaon (Kukadi), Pimpalgaon (Pushpavati), Manikdoh, Meena (Meena), Dimbe (Ghod), Chas-Kaman and Ujani (Bhima), Andhra (Andhra), Valvhan (Indrayani), Pavna (Pavna), Mulshi (Mula), Temghar, Khadakwasla (Mutha), Varasgaon (Ambi), Panshet (Mose), Chapet (Kanandi), Bhatgar (Velvandi), Devghar, and Veer (Neera).
The Lonavla region (Wadgaon-Maval Taluka) can be called as the lake district of Maharashtra due to numerous lakes in this area viz, Bhushi, the Lonavla lake, INS Shivaji, Pavna, Valvhan, Tungarli, Andhra, and Shirawta lake. However, the Sahyadris and its branches offer lot of opportunity for damming the streams leading to a large number of lakes in Pune district.
According to the 2011 census Pune District has a population of 9,429,408, roughly equal to the nation of Benin or the US state of North Carolina. This gives it a ranking of 4th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 603 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,560/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 30.34%. Pune has a sex ratio of 910 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 87.19%.
As of the census of 2001, there were 7,232,555 people and 1,517,041 households. The population density was 462 people per /km².
In the district the population was spread out with 685,022 under the age of 4; 1,491,352 from 5 to 15; 4,466,901 from 15 to 59 and 5,89,280 60 years of age or older. For every 1000 males age 6 and older, there were 919 females.
Pune District is home to Savitribai Phule University. The city itself is known as the Oxford of the East. Famous colleges include:
Primary and secondary education
Public education in Pune District is administered by the Zilla Parishad. There are a number of primary and secondary Schools in the district. The oldest one was established by Bharatratna Dr. Dhondo Keshav Karve in 1910 at Hingne, currently called as Karvenagar.
Administratively the district is divided into 15 talukas and 13 Panchayat Samitis. These are Junnar tehsil, Ambegaon tehsil, Khed tehsil, Maval tehsil, Mulshi tehsil, Velhe tehsil, Bhor tehsil, Haveli tehsil, Purandar tehsil, Pimpri-Chinchwad City tensil, Pune City tehsil, Indapur tehsil, Daund tehsil, Baramati tehsil and Shirur tehsil. Pune city is the administrative headquarters of the district. There are around 1,866 villages in the district.
There are 18 Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district. These are Junnar, Ambegaon, Khed-Alandi, Maval, Mulshi, Haveli, Bopodi, Shivajinagar, Parvati (SC), Kasba Peth, Bhvani Peth, Pune Cantonment, Shirur, Daund, Indapur, Baramati, Purandhar and Bhor. The 4 Lok Sabha constituencies of the district are Pune, Baramati, Shirur and Maval (is shared by Raigad district).
The Pune District is presently proposed to be divided, with a separate Baramati District carved out of the existing Pune district; the new district will include the eastern parts of the existing Pune district - Shirur, Purandar, Daund, Baramati and Indapur talukas - as well as Phaltan Taluka from neighbouring Satara District in the proposed Baramati District.
Pune District Court
Pune District Court administers justice at the district level. It is the principal court of original civil jurisdiction in civil matters. The district court is also a court of Sessions when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters. The district court is presided over by a Principal District and Sessions Judge appointed by the state Government.
The decisions of the court are subject to the appellate jurisdiction of the Bombay High Court. Pune District Court is under administrative control of the High Court.
Cities and towns
Pune city and the twin city Pimpri-Chinchwad are the major cities in the district. Pune city is administered by the Pune Municipal Corporation while Pimpri – Chinchwad is administered by the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation. There are three cantonment areas in the district.
Some smaller towns in the district with Nagarpalikas or Municipal Councils are:
A number of places revered by Marathi Hindu people are located in the district. They include five of the eight Ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Samadhi or the resting places of the two most revered Marathi Bhakti saints, namely Dnyaneshwar and Tukaram are located at alandi and Dehu respectively. The main temple of Khandoba, the family deity for most Marathi Hindus is also located in the district at Jejuri. Some of the important places are listed below:
There are many historically important hill forts and castles around the district dating back to times of Shivaji and before.
It is an industrial center as well as an agriculture based economy. It is one of the IT destinations of India. There are many automotive manufacturing businesses in Pune district.
Pune International Airport (IATA:PNQ) is a civil enclave located at Lohegaon Air Base, northeast of Pune city. The flights to a number of domestic and international destinations are operated from this airport. As Pune's Air Traffic Control is controlled by the Indian Air Force, there are at times friction between the AAI and the IAF over schedules of flights or the landing of aircraft at night. The airport's apron is also proving to be inadequate to handle the growing number of flights into Pune. Hence, a new greenfield airport for the Pune metropolitan region has been proposed and Government of Maharashtra has entrusted the responsibility to Maharashtra Airport Development Company (MADC) for executing the New Pune International Airport project. in the areas between Chakan and Rajgurunagar along the Pune – Nashik National highway, National Highway 50.
Baramati Airport, 12 km from Baramati and 100 km from Pune, currently being used for Pilot training and charter flights, is being planned as a hub for private jets by Reliance Airport Developers.
Total road length of Pune district is 13,642 km. Several National Highways and State Highways criss cross Pune district. They include:
Major State Highways include
The municipal bus system operates buses that serve the region and connect places in Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad areas. The State Transport buses of MSRTC serves all villages in the district.
The Pune district's two major junctions are Pune Junction and Daund Junction. All railway lines through Pune are broad gauge and have double track. They belong to Central Railway.
The Pune-Miraj-Kolhapur railway line was metre gauge and converted to broad gauge in 1995 under Project Unigauge. The railway line from Latur Road (Latur) to Kurduwadi to Miraj was narrow gauge converted to broad gauge.
The Maharashtra Cricket team has its home ground in Pune city playing at the newly built Maharashtra Cricket Association MCA Cricket Stadium in Gahunje.
The Pune Football Club of the I-Leagues are located in Pune City The team plays in the 1st Division of the I-League. They finished 3rd in the 2009–10 season.
The 1993 National Games were held in Pune City, and the newly built Sports City held the Commonwealth Youth Games in 2008. Krida Prabodhini in Baner is a sports school. The presence of water bodies has given rise to a number of boat clubs: COEP, RCBC, KPRC and MIT Alandi.
Pune has given many well known sports personalities to the nation which includes Abhijit Kunte (chess grand master), Hrishikesh Kanitkar (cricket), Dhanraj Pille (hockey), Anwar Shaikh (athletics).
Balewadi is an all in one ground in Pune.
From 2011–2012 Sahara Pune Warriors had their home ground in Pune, the newly built Subrata Roy Sahara stadium. Puneri Paltan is one of the eight teams in the pro Kabbadi league. It has its home ground in Balewadi.
Bhigwan, a catchment area of Ujani Dam, is about 95km from Pune on the Pune-Solapur highway (NH-9). An area of about 18000 hectares has been proposed as a sanctuary for migratory birds. The water catchment area is spread across around the town of Bhigwan. Bhigwan is an important destination and transit point for migratory waterfowl.
Pune District is served by three government hospitals, Sasoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr. Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of big private hospitals. Sahyadri Hospital, Jahangir Hospital, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Mangeshkar Hospital are the famous ones.