Girish Mahajan (Editor)

Puffball

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Puffball httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommons55
Representative species  Calvatia gigantea, Lycoperdon perlatum, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Scleroderma citrinum, Lycoperdon umbrinum

Edible fungi giant puffball


A puffball is a member of any of several groups of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The puffballs were previously treated as a taxonomic group called the Gasteromycetes or Gasteromycetidae, but they are now known to be a polyphyletic assemblage. The distinguishing feature of all puffballs is that they do not have an open cap with spore-bearing gills. Instead, spores are produced internally, in a spheroidal fruitbody called a gasterothecium (gasteroid ('stomach-like') basidiocarp). As the spores mature, they form a mass called a gleba in the centre of the fruitbody that is often of a distinctive color and texture. The basidiocarp remains closed until after the spores have been released from the basidia. Eventually, it develops an aperture, or dries, becomes brittle, and splits, and the spores escape. The spores of puffballs are statismospores rather than ballistospores, meaning they are not actively shot off the basidium. The fungi are called puffballs because clouds of brown dust-like spores are emitted when the mature fruitbody bursts, or in response to impacts such as those of falling raindrops. Puffballs and similar forms are thought to have evolved convergently (that is, in numerous independent events) from Hymenomycetes by gasteromycetation, through secotioid stages. Thus, 'Gasteromycetes' and 'Gasteromycetidae' are now considered to be descriptive, morphological terms (more properly gasteroid or gasteromycetes, to avoid taxonomic implications) but not valid cladistic terms.

Contents

Puffball Puffballs Identification Distribution Edibility Galloway Wild

Puffballs encompass several genera, including Calvatia, Calbovista and Lycoperdon. True puffballs do not have a visible stalk (stem).

Stalked puffballs do have a stalk that supports the gleba. None of the stalked puffballs are edible as they are tough and woody mushrooms. The Hymenogastrales and Enteridium lycoperdon, a slime mold, are the false puffballs. A gleba which is powdery on maturity is a feature of true puffballs, stalked puffballs and earthstars. False puffballs are hard like rock or brittle. All false puffballs are inedible, as they are tough and bitter to taste. The genus Scleroderma, which has a young purple gleba, should also be avoided.

Puffball Puffball Wikipedia

Puffballs were traditionally used in Tibet for making ink by burning them, grinding the ash, then putting them in water and adding glue liquid and "a nye shing ma decoction", which, when pressed for a long time, made a black dark substance that was used as ink.

Smashing a giant puffball mushroom


Edibility and identification

Puffball Giant Puffball and Other Edible Wild Puffball Mushrooms

While most puffballs are not poisonous, some often look similar to young agarics, especially the deadly Amanitas, such as the death cap or destroying angel mushrooms. It is for this reason that all puffballs gathered in mushroom hunting are cut in half lengthwise. Young puffballs in the edible stage, before maturation of the gleba, have undifferentiated white flesh within; whereas the gills of immature Amanita mushrooms can be seen if they are closely examined.

The giant puffball, Calvatia gigantea (earlier classified as Lycoperdon giganteum), reaches a foot (30 cm) or more in diameter, and is difficult to mistake for any other fungus. It has been estimated that a large specimen of this fungus when mature will produce around 7 × 10¹² spores. If collected before spores have formed, while the flesh is still white, it may be cooked as slices fried in butter, with a strong earthy, mushroom flavor.

Not all true puffball mushrooms are without stalks. Some may also be stalked like the Podaxis pistillaris which is also called the "false shaggy mane". There are also a number of false puffballs that look similar to the true ones.

Stalked puffballs

Stalked puffballs species:

  • Battarrea phalloides
  • Calostoma cinnabarina (Stalked Puffball-in-Aspic)
  • Pisolithus tinctorius
  • Tulostoma simulans
  • True puffballs

    True puffballs genera and species:

  • Bovista — various species, including:
  • Bovista aestivalis
  • Bovista dermoxantha
  • Bovista nigrescens
  • Calvatia — various species, including:
  • Calvatia bovista
  • Calvatia craniiformis
  • Calvatia cyathiformis
  • Calvatia gigantea
  • Calvatia booniana
  • Calvatia fumosa
  • Calvatia lepidophora
  • Calvatia pachyderma
  • Calvatia sculpta
  • Calvatia subcretacea
  • Calbovista subsculpta
  • Handkea — various species, including:
  • Handkea utriformis
  • Lycoperdon — various species, including:
  • Lycoperdon candidum
  • Lycoperdon echinatum
  • Lycoperdon fusillum
  • Lycoperdon umbrinum
  • Scleroderma — various species, including:
  • Scleroderma auratium
  • Scleroderma geaster
  • False puffballs

    False puffballs species:

  • Endoptychum agaricoides
  • Nivatogastrium nubigenum
  • Podaxis pistillaris
  • Rhizopogon rubescens
  • Truncocolumella citrina
  • Classification

    Major orders:

  • Agaricales (including now-obsolete orders Lycoperdales, Tulostomatales, and Nidulariales)
  • Basidiomycetes : Agaricales : Lycoperdaceae : Calvatia
  • Calvatia booniana -
  • Calvatia bovista (Handkea utriformis)
  • Calvatia craniiformis -
  • Calvatia cyathiformis -
  • Calvatia fumosa (Handkea fumosa) -
  • Calvatia gigantea -
  • Calvatia lepidophora -
  • Calvatia rubroflava -
  • Calvatia sculpta -
  • Calvatia subcretacea (Handkea subcretacea) -
  • Basidiomycetes : Agaricales : Lycoperdaceae : Lycoperdon
  • Lycoperdon foetidum (Lycoperdon nigrescens)
  • Lycoperdon perlatum -
  • Lycoperdon pulcherrimum -
  • Lycoperdon pusillum
  • Lycoperdon pyriforme
  • Basidiomycetes : Agaricales : Lycoperdaceae : Vascellum
  • Vascellum curtisii -
  • Vascellum pratense
  • Geastrales and Phallales (related to Cantharellales),
  • Basidiomycetes : Phallales : Geastraceae : Geastrum
  • Geastrum coronatum
  • Geastrum fornicatum
  • Geastrum saccatum -
  • Sclerodermatales (related to Boletales)
  • Basidiomycetes : Boletales : Sclerodermataceae : Scleroderma
  • Scleroderma areolatum -
  • Scleroderma bovista -
  • Scleroderma cepa
  • Scleroderma citrinum -
  • Scleroderma meridionale -
  • Scleroderma michiganense -
  • Scleroderma polyrhizum -
  • Scleroderma septentrionale -
  • and various false-truffles (hypogaeic gasteromycetes) related to different hymenomycete orders.
  • Similarly, the true truffles (Tuberales) are gasteroid Ascomycota. Their ascocarps are called tuberothecia.

    Puffball

    References

    Puffball Wikipedia


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