He is a three-time Stanley Cup champion, having won as a member of the Blackhawks in 2010, 2013, and 2015; as well as an Olympic gold medalist playing with the Canadian national team at the 2014 Winter Games.
Sharp began his hockey career in Thunder Bay, Ontario, playing first for the Thunder Bay Kings program then for the former Thunder Bay Flyers of the United States Hockey League (USHL). From there he continued his hockey career in the college ranks with the University of Vermont, before the Philadelphia Flyers selected him 95th overall (3rd round) in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft.
After completing two years with Vermont, Sharp made his NHL debut in 2003–04, splitting the season between the Flyers and their American Hockey League (AHL) affiliate, the Philadelphia Phantoms, recording seven points (5 goals, 2 assists) in 41 regular season games with the Flyers, and 29 points (15 goals, 14 assists) in 35 games for the Phantoms. Due to the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Sharp spent the entire following season in the AHL with the Phantoms, registering 23 goals and 29 assists (52 points) in 75 regular-season games and eight goals and 13 assists (21 points) in 21 playoff games en route to a Calder Cup championship.
Midway through the 2005–06 season, Sharp was traded by the Flyers, along with Éric Meloche, to the Chicago Blackhawks on December 5, 2005, for Matt Ellison and a third round pick in the 2006 NHL Entry Draft. He finished the season with a combined 31 points between the two teams. Sharp emerged with the Blackhawks in 2007–08, recording career-highs of 36 goals, 26 assists and 62 points. He led the Blackhawks in power play goals (9), shorthanded goals (7) and game-winning goals (7). Near the half-way mark for the season, on January 17, 2008, the Blackhawks signed Sharp to a four-year contract extension through to the 2011–12 season.
At the start of the 2008–09 season, on October 8, 2008, Sharp was named an alternate captain for the Blackhawks, along with Duncan Keith. Despite being limited by injuries, Sharp helped the Blackhawks form a highly offensive and young core led by second-year forwards Jonathan Toews, Patrick Kane and newly acquired defenceman Brian Campbell. He finished the season with 44 points in 61 games. He added 11 points in the post-season as the Blackhawks were eliminated in the Western Conference Finals by the Detroit Red Wings.
On June 9, 2010, Sharp won the Stanley Cup with Chicago over the Philadelphia Flyers, his former team. Sharp contributed 11 goals and 11 assists during Chicago's playoff run. On January 30, 2011, he won the 2011 NHL All-Star Game MVP Award, getting one goal and two assists. On August 3, 2011, Sharp signed a five-year contract extension with the Blackhawks worth $29.5 million, which comes into effect during the 2012–13 season and will carry an annual salary cap hit of $5.9 million. On September 12, 2011, Sharp underwent an emergency appendectomy after experiencing abdominal discomfort. Team physician Dr. Michael Terry anticipated that Sharp would have a full recovery in about three-to-four weeks.
On November 25, 2011, Sharp recorded the second hat-trick of his NHL career in a 6–5 win against the Anaheim Ducks. Jonathan Toews, who himself had a career-best five-point game, recorded the primary assists on all three of Sharp's goals. Sharp would finish the season with 33 goals along with 36 assists. He scored one goal during the Blackhawks first round exit to the Phoenix Coyotes in the 2012 Stanley Cup playoffs.
During the 2012–13 NHL lockout, Sharp remained in Chicago, while many of his teammates started playing for European leagues. He spent time with his then nine-month-old daughter, and was involved in Gillette's "My City is My Gym" fitness program as a spokesperson. During the shortened NHL season, when play resumed in 2013, Sharp played 28 games, putting up six goals and 14 assists for a total of 20 points and a plus-minus rating of +8. On December 27, 2013, Sharp recorded his third hat-trick of his NHL career in a 7–2 win against the Colorado Avalanche. Four games after, he recorded his fourth hat-trick against the New Jersey Devils in a 5–3 win on January 3, 2014. On January 7, 2014, Sharp was named to the Canadian Olympic team for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.
On July 10, 2015, due to salary cap issues, Sharp and Blackhawks defenseman Stephen Johns were traded to the Dallas Stars in exchange for Trevor Daley and Ryan Garbutt.
On December 22, 2015, in the first matchup against his former Blackhawks, he tallied a two-point performance, adding a goal and an assist in a 4–0 victory. He played in 76 games in his first year in Dallas, scoring 20 goals to go with 35 assists.
Sharp signed a one-year contract with the Chicago Blackhawks on July 1, 2017. Sharp accepted a pay-cut, earning a $800,000 base-salary with $200,000 in potential bonuses, to return to Chicago.
Sharp was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada to Ian and Ruth Ann Sharp. He has an older brother, Chris, who currently lives in Calgary. Relocating several times in his life, Patrick left his native Manitoba and relocated to Calgary as a child and then moved to Thunder Bay in 1990 at nine years of age. Patrick lived in Thunder Bay for the rest of his childhood. He was educated and attended local public schools in Calgary and Thunder Bay before settling in Burlington, Vermont, in the United States, to attend the University of Vermont. Patrick's parents remain in Thunder Bay and live on Lake Superior. In December 2009, Patrick was inaccurately announced as "Chicago's Sexiest Athlete" by Victoria's Secret, who then named Derrick Rose of the Chicago Bulls the winner, citing an "internal error."
Patrick was married in July 2010 to his longtime girlfriend Abby, whom he met while attending college in Vermont. Their wedding was held in Watch Hill, Rhode Island. Sharp's Blackhawks teammate Patrick Kane was among those in attendance. The couple's first daughter, Madelyn Grace, was born on December 9, 2011 and their second daughter, Sadie Ellen, was born on October 13, 2013. In early 2011, Sharp was featured on the cover of Chicago magazine in its "50 Most Beautiful Chicagoans" story.