The oldest extant document regarding Pardubice comes from 1295.
The area had a monastery founded in 2nd half of 13th century and the city was founded c. 1340. In 1491, Pardubice was bought by William II of Pernstein, who continued to expand the town and made significant impact on its prosperity. Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the PARDUBITZ district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.
In 1845, the first train arrived to Pardubice. The town was connected to other railway lines so Pardubice could thrive even more. New industrial enterprises started to emerge in the town, namely a distillery, a factory for mill machines of Josef Prokop and sons and Fanta’s Factory. Since 1874, the Great Pardubice Steeplechase (Velká Pardubická) horse race has taken place every autumn (second Sunday in October). On 13 May 1911, Ing. Jan Kašpar made history by flying the first long-haul flight towards Prague. In Pardubice, industrial expansion was on the rise, especially after the First World War. However, during the Second World War the town was damaged by air strikes of the Allies. The Fanto Werke refinery at Pardubice was repeatedly bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II, and forced labor was provided by a concentration camp. Tesla electronics manufacturer operated from 1921–1989, and the Foxconn factory was established in June 2000. After 1989 the town continued to develop and flourish; the Chateau and its surroundings of estates were reconstructed. Pardubice has established contacts with foreign towns.
Pardubice is situated on the bank of the second longest river in the Czech Republic, the Labe River, where there is a mouth of another river called Chrudimka. Pardubice is located at approximately 15° east longitude and 50° north longitude. The town is located 100 km east of the capital city of Prague, 150 km north-west of Brno. Pardubice is in the area of Labe Lowlands with average elevation of 225m and its area is 78 km2. The area is of lowland character without many hills. One exception is a nearby hill Kunětická hora.
Pardubice is an important railway junction. From Pardubice come tracks to Prague, Ostrava, Hradec Králové and Jaroměř or Havlíčkův Brod. Railway station Pardubice main station is very busy, all trains of Czech railways, RegioJet and LEO Express are standing there.
Paradubice is served by Pardubice Airport.
Pardubice is called the city of industry. The dominant industries are chemical industry, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. The chemical industry is mainly represented by a company Paramo and Synthesia, which was founded in Pardubice-Semtín as a stock factory for explosive substances. This field of industry together with the factory went through significant development, especially in 1960s. Synthesia is now one of the leading Czech companies manufacturing cellulose, pigments and dyes, and organic compounds. Synthesia is also a major exporter mainly for the EU countries and is associated with the invention of Semtex plastic explosive. Paramo – formally known as Fanta’s Factory was until 2012 one of the major companies of its kind, but during the year a major shareholder decided to significantly suppress its production and the future of Paramo is still uncertain.
Pardubice is dominated by the Green Gate with remains of the town’s fortifications. The Chateau, which has been reconstructed, is located nearby. The town itself has many historical buildings, for example, Kamenná vila (Stone Villa), Crematorium, Dům U Bílého koníčka (House at the White Horse), Wernerův dům (Werner’s House), Dům U Jonáše (At Jonah’s), the City Hall. Churches are dedicated to the Our Lady of Sorrows, St. John the Baptist, St. Bartholomew.
Ice hockey club Dynamo Pardubice plays in the Czech Extraliga. The team plays its home games at Tipsport Arena. The city was first represented in the top national football competition by SK Pardubice in the 1930s and 1940s. Later VCHZ Pardubice played in the top national league in the 1968–69 season. As of 2016, the highest-ranked team from the city is FK Pardubice, which plays in the second-tier Czech National Football League. Women's team SK DFO Pardubice plays in the Czech First Division (women). The basketball team is BK JIP Pardubice.
The city is also home to the Golden Helmet of Pardubice (also known as the Czech Golden Helmet), a Motorcycle speedway competition held at the Svítkova Stadion. The Golden Helmet has been run since 1929 is one of the most prestigious individual titles in world speedway outside of the Speedway World Championship or a riders national championship. Winners of the Golden Helmet have included World Champions Ole Olsen, Erik Gundersen, Hans Nielsen and Nicki Pedersen (Denmark), Ove Fundin, Per Jonsson and Tony Rickardsson (Sweden), and Jason Crump and 2014 winner Chris Holder (Australia). Ole Olsen holds the record for the most Golden Helmet wins with 7 (1970, 1971, 1972, 1975, 1977, 1979 and 1980).Edita Adlerová, classical mezzo-soprano
Gabriela Banová, fashion model, nutritionist
Gustav Gärtner (1855-1937), pathologist
Dominik Hašek, former NHL goaltender for the Detroit Red Wings, Ottawa Senators, Buffalo Sabres and Chicago Blackhawks.
Aleš Hemský, NHL hockey player for the Dallas Stars
Iva Kramperová, classical violinist
Filip Bandžak, opera singer, baritone
Jaroslav Stark, mathematician who worked mostly in the fields of Chaos Theory and Systems Biology.
Jan Tauc, physicist who introduced the concepts of Tauc gap and Tauc plot to the optical characterization of solids.
Věra Vovsová, painter
Jiří Welsch, NBA player for the Golden State Warriors, Dallas Mavericks, Boston Celtics, Cleveland Cavaliers, and the Milwaukee Bucks
Pardubice is twinned with: Doetinchem, Netherlands
East Lothian, Scotland
Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
Rosignano Marittimo, Italy
Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia