Kalpana Kalpana (Editor)


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Higher classification



Scientific name

A bunch of Panaeolus subbalteatus surrounded by dried leaves and some thin grass

Lower classifications
Panaeolus cyanescens, Panaeolus cinctulus, Panaeolus semiovatus var semi, Panaeolus olivaceus, Dark‑rimmed Mottlegill

Panaeolus castaneifolius fungi kingdom

Panaeolus is a genus of small, black-spored, saprotrophic agarics. The word Panaeolus is Greek for "all variegated", alluding to the spotted gills of the mushrooms produced.


Two Panaeolus papilionaceus surrounded by tall and thin grass


Three Panaeolus subbalteatus surrounded by dried and burnt grass and green plants at the back

These fungi are mostly dung and grassland species, some of which are quite common in Europe and North America. The gills of Panaeolus do not deliquesce as do the members of the related genera Coprinellus and Coprinopsis. Members of Panaeolus can also be mistaken for Psathyrella, however the latter genus is usually found growing on wood or lignin-enriched soils and has brittle stipes.

Bunch of Panaeolus cyanescens growing in a dung

The gills of these mushrooms are black or grey and have a spotty, speckled or cloudy appearance, caused by the way that the dark spores ripen together in tiny patches on the gill surface; different patches darken at different times. The spores are smooth.

A bunch of Panaeolus cinctulus surrounded by dried leaves

The closely related genus Panaeolina shares the spotted gills but they are dark brown (not black) and the spores are ornamented. This genus is sometimes treated as part of Panaeolus.

Two Panaeolus semiovatus growing in a cow dung

The spores are smooth or roughened, with a germ pore, and all species except for Panaeolus foenisecii have a jet black spore print.


No members of Panaeolus are used for food, though some are used as a psychedelic drug. Thirteen species of Panaeolus contain the hallucinogen psilocybin including Panaeolus cyanescens and Panaeolus cinctulus. The bluing hallucinogenic members of this genus are sometimes segregated into a separate genus, Copelandia.

Several members of this genus are known to contain psilocin and psilocybin and it is suspected that a number of other members of this genus contain unidentified psychoactive compounds. All members of this genus contain serotonin.

Notable species

  • Panaeolus acuminatus
  • Panaeolus africanus
  • Panaeolus antillarum
  • Panaeolus bispora
  • Panaeolus cambodginiensis
  • Panaeolus cyanescens, psychoactive
  • Panaeolus fimicola
  • Panaeolus foenisecii, syn. Panaeolina foenisecii
  • Panaeolus olivaceus
  • Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus
  • Panaeolus papilionaceus var. parvisporus
  • Panaeolus semiovatus var. phalaenarum
  • Panaeolus semiovatus var. semiovatus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus tropicalis
  • References

    Panaeolus Wikipedia

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