Paderborn was founded as a bishopric by Charlemagne in 795, although its official history began in 777 when Charlemagne built a castle near the Pader springs. In 799 Pope Leo III fled his enemies in Rome and reached Paderborn, where he met Charlemagne, and stayed there for three months. It was during this time that it was decided that Charlemagne would be crowned emperor. Charlemagne reinstated Leo in Rome in 800 and was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Leo in return. In 836, St. Liborius became the patron saint of Paderborn after his bones were moved there from Le Mans by Bishop Badurad. St. Liborius is commemorated in Paderborn every year in July with the Liborifest.
The bishop of Paderborn, Meinwerk, became a Prince of the Empire in 1100. The bishop had several large buildings built, and the area became a place for the emperors to stay.
The city was taken by Prussia in 1802, then by the French vassal state Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813 and then returned to Prussia.
Native Friedrich Sertürner, a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn, was the first to isolate morphine from opium in 1804.
In 1930, the See of Paderborn was promoted to archdiocese.
During World War II, Paderborn was bombed by Allied aircraft in 1944 and 1945, resulting in 85% destruction, including many of the historic buildings. It was seized by the US 3rd Armored Division after a pitched battle 31 March - 1 April 1945, in which tanks and flamethrowers were used during combined mechanized-infantry assaults against the city's southwestern, southern and southeastern approaches.
After the city was reconstructed in the 1940s and 1950s, Paderborn became a major industrial seat in Westphalia. The British Army has retained a significant presence in the area, and uses the nearby Sennelager Training Area.
Paderborn is situated at the spring of the Pader river, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Lippstadt and approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Bielefeld on the Pader river. The hills of the Eggegebirge are located east of the city.
The city of Paderborn consists of the following Stadtteile:
Paderborn has a population of over 144,000, of which approximately 10% are students at the local university. Additionally, about 10,000 members or relatives of members of the British armed forces live within Westfalen Garrison, but are not included in the nominal population size.
60% of the population are Catholics, 20% Lutherans and 20% "other".
Paderborn is the headquarters of the former Nixdorf Computer AG, which was acquired by Siemens in the early 1990s and known as Siemens-Nixdorf for about 10 years. The company is now known as Wincor Nixdorf which is still located in Paderborn, but Siemens retains a considerable presence in the city.
Many other information technology companies as well as industrial enterprises are located in Paderborn, too:Benteler AG (steel/tube, automotive, trade)
Claas (farm machines)
Deutsche Bahn AG (vehicle maintenance)
dSPACE GmbH (engineering tools)
Fujitsu Technology Solutions
Orga Systems GmbH
Secure Computing Corporation
Siemens AG (Siemens IT Solutions and Services)
Zuken (PCB EMC Analysis and Design Software)
Paderborn is also home of the "Paderborner" brewery, which has belonged to the Warsteiner group since 1990.
Paderborn has the largest computer museum in the world, the de:Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum. From 2001 to 2005 it hosted the RoboCup German Open.
The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts in the Paderhalle.
The city is known today for its exhibitions in three museums: the Kaiserpfalz, The Diocesian Museum and the Art Museum - Städtische Galerie.
Paderborn is twinned with: Le Mans, France, officially since 1967, traditionally since 836 (oldest partnership of its kind)
Bolton, United Kingdom, since 1975
Belleville, Illinois, U.S., since 1990
Pamplona, Spain, since 1992
Przemyśl, Poland, since 1993
Debrecen, Hungary, since 1994
Qingdao, China, since 2003
Paderborn is nationally known as a center for American Sports. The local baseball team, the Paderborn Untouchables, has won many German championships. The local American Football team, the Paderborn Dolphins, has also enjoyed considerable success. In 2006 the Paderborn Baskets, the home basketball team of the city was promoted to the Bundesliga.
In the past, the Paderborn Baskets played multiple seasons in the Basketball Bundesliga. They reached the playoffs in the 2008-09 season.
SC Paderborn 07 is a German football club based in Paderborn. Promoted from the 2. Bundesliga due to a very successful 2013/2014 campaign, the team advanced to the Bundesliga, Germany's top flight, but remained there for just one year.
The club was formed out of the 1985 merger of FC Paderborn and TuS Schloß Neuhaus as TuS Paderborn-Neuhaus and took on its current, shorter name in 1997. The Neuhaus club was founded in 1907 as SV 07 Neuhaus which was joined by the local side TuS 1910 Sennelager to become TuS Schloss Neuhaus in 1970. The Neuhaus and Paderborn teams played as tier III sides for most of their histories, as has the unified club. Today Paderborn plays its home matches at the Benteler Arena.
Paderborn is located at the Autobahn A 33, which connects Paderborn to the Autobahn A 2 in the north and the Autobahn A 44 in the south.
The main station is a regular stop for the InterCity on the Hamm–Warburg line and several local trains.
The Paderborn Lippstadt Airport connects Paderborn to the bigger German airports and offers flights to many locations in Europe. There is a bus shuttle between the airport and the Paderborn main train station. General Aviation and gliders are based at Paderborn-Haxterberg (site of the world gliding championships in 1981).
In Paderborn there is a bus system served by the PaderSprinter for local buses and the Bahnbus Hochstift for regional buses.
Paderborn was once the oldest academic site in Westphalia. In 1614, the University of Paderborn was founded by the Jesuits but was closed in 1819. It was re-founded in 1972 as Universität-Gesamthochschule and transformed into a university in its own right in 2002. Today, it is attended by about 20,000 students.
Additionally, there are several theological and private academic institutes in Paderborn.
There are a number of grammar schools in the city, the most prominent of which are the Theodorianum and St. Michael Gymnasium, along with others such as the Goerdeler-Gymnasium. There are also a few British primary schools such as John Buchan School, which is located in Sennelager and mainly educates children of British military personnel and the garrison's employees.Heinrich Aldegrever (1502 - ?1558?), Copper cutter, painter and seal cutter
Carl Ferdinand Fabritius (1637 – 1673) was a painter in the Bishopric of Paderborn
Franz Anton Cramer (1776 – 1829) was a German apothecary in Paderborn. Adlerapotheke at the Paderborn market. His generous support enabled the discovery of morphine.
Sophie Schröder (1781-1868), singer and actress, the daughter of an actor, Gottfried Bürger. She made her first appearance in opera at St Petersburg in 1793
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (1783-1841), pharmacist, first to isolate morphine from opium
Therese Overstolz (1790-1862) mother of Henry Overstolz (1821–1887) the 24th mayor of St. Louis, Missouri
Joseph Hermann Schmidt (1804-1852), Paderborn physician, director, Charité Birth Department, Berlin
George Henry Backhaus (1811 in Paderborn – 1882) was a Catholic priest and one of nine children of a boot merchant, missionary
Franz von Löher (1818-1892), politician, jurist and historian
Christoph Ernst Friedrich von Forcade de Biaix (1821-1891), owner of the estate, judge and member of the German Reichstag
Julius von Ficker (1826-1902), German-Austrian historian
Joseph F. Rigge S.J. (1842-1913) was the first president of Marquette College (now Marquette University) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Klara Cramer (1844–96) from Paderborn; mother of Hermann Löns (1866 – 1914) journalist and writer.
Aloys Loeher (1850–1904) was an American sculptor, exhibited at the 1893 Columbian Exposition
Karl von Plettenberg (1852-1938), a Prussian officer and later General of Infantry during World War I
Clemens Baeumker (1853-1924), a Catholic philosopher and philosophy historian
Augustus F. Fechteler (1857–1921) was a Rear Admiral of the United States Navy during World War I
Ella Bergmann-Michel (1895-1971), painter, photographer and documentary filmmaker
Gustav Simon (1900 – 1945 in Paderborn) was Nazi Gauleiter in the Moselland Gau from 1940 until 1944 and Chief of the Civil Administration in occupied Luxembourg.
Josef Wirmer (1901-1944), jurist and resistance fighter against national socialism
Friedrich Wilhelm Christians (1922-2004), a German banker, who was co-head of Deutsche Bank and President of the Association of German Banks
Heinz Nixdorf (1925-1986), computer pioneer, entrepreneur and founder of Nixdorf Computer AG.
Werner Franke (born 1940), professor of cell and molecular biology
Ulrich Vogt (born 1941), teacher and non-fiction author
Mechtild Rothe (born 1947), politician (SPD) and Member of the European Parliament
Klaus Ehl (born 1949), athlete (sprinter)
Hans-Günther Vosseler (born 1949), swimmer
Franz-Josef Bode (born 1951) bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabruck since 1995
Andreas Fischer (footballer) (born 1964), football player
Rüdiger Hoffmann (born 1964), cabaret artist and musician
Günter Kutowski (born 1965) retired footballer who played as a defender for Borussia Dortmund
Martin Driller (born 1970), footballer
Bernd Hüttemann (born 1970), is Vice President of the European Movement International and Secretary General of the European Movement Germany.
Stefan Gödde (born 1975), television presenter, radio presenter and reporter.
Reiner Plaßhenrich (born 1976), footballer and coach
Judith Rakers (born 1976), journalist and television supporter (ARD)
Carsten Linnemann (born 1977), economist and politician, member of the CDU, a member of the German Bundestag since 2009 representing Paderborn – Gütersloh III.
Jasmin Glaesser (born 1992), moved to Canada at the age of eight, now Canadian cyclist
Alexander Nübel (born 1996), German footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Schalke 04