Oława (urban gmina)
Wednesday 5:04 AM
| Oława County|
122 m (400 ft)
| 9°C, Wind W at 11 km/h, 70% Humidity|
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Oława [ɔˈwava] (German: Ohlau ) is a town in south-western Poland with 31,078 inhabitants (2005). It is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wrocław Voivodeship). It is the seat of Oława County, and also of the smaller administrative district of Gmina Oława (although it is not part of the territory of the latter, as the town is an urban gmina in its own right).
Oława began to develop during the early 12th century at a site that was protected by the rivers Oder and Oława. It was first mentioned as Oloua in a document of 1149 confirming its donation to the abbey of St. Vincent in Wrocław. In 1206 Oława became one of the residence towns of the dukes of the Silesian Piast dynasty, who also granted Oława the status of a town in 1234. During its history Oława was destroyed completely three times. In 1241 it was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe, in 1448 by the Hussites, and again in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War. After the Polish King Casimir III had renounced his rights on Silesia with the contract of Trenčín in 1335, Silesia became until 1806 a part of the Holy Roman Empire as a Bohemian fief. In 1526, when the Habsburgs gained the Bohemian crown, Silesia came under Austrian sovereignty. In 1527 with the Reformation High German language came in use and with it the first usage of the version of the town's name("Ohlau") is reported . After the death of the last Silesian Piast duke George IV William of Legnica in 1675, Ohlau ceased to be a residence town. Together with most of Silesia, the town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1741. The 18th and 19th centuries were a period of economic growth and Ohlau became well known as a centre of tobacco-growing. Ethnic Polish traditions and population also remained strong in the area, with a large influx of people from nearby Congress Poland. In 1842 a railroad between Ohlau and Breslau, the first in Silesia, was opened.
The historic town of Ohlau did not suffer any damage during World War I, because there were no fightings in Silesia. However, in World War II about 60% of the town was destroyed. On 2 September 1939, one Polish PZL.23 Karaś bomber (scout) plane did bomb a German factory within the city in the first attack on German territory during the war. Oława became a garrison town of the Red Army Northern Group of Forces and remained so until 1992.
Maria Karolina Sobieska, (1697–1740) duchesse de Bouillon, daughter of James Louis Sobieski.
Maria Clementina Sobieska, (1702–1735) wife of the Jacobite pretender James Francis Edward Stuart, sister of the above.
Johann Baptist Alzog, (1808–1878) German theologian and Catholic church historian.
Alfred Israel Pringsheim, (1850–1941) German mathematician and patron of the arts
Hermann Eberhard (1852–1908), German explorer
Bernhard Lichtenberg (1875–1943) German Roman Catholic priest and theologian, awarded the title righteous among the Nations.
Hans-Georg von der Marwitz (1893–1925), German World War I flying ace
Richard Peter, (1895–1977) German photographer, born in Klein Jenkwitz near Ohlau
Bernd Eistert, (1902–1978) German chemist
Peter Yorck von Wartenburg, (1904–1944) German jurist and a member of the German Resistance against Nazism
Hans Kloss (born 1938), German artist and graphic designer
Adam Wójcik, (1970–present) Polish basketball player, 8-time Polish champion.
Szymon Kołecki, (1981–present) Polish weightlifter who achieved silver medals at 2002 Olympic Games in Athens and 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.
Janusz Gancarczyk, (1984–present) Polish footballer who plays for Polonia Warszawa.
Marek Gancarczyk, (1983–present) Polish footballer who plays for Śląsk Wrocław.
George Gellhorn, father of Martha Gellhorn, was born and grew up here.
Paweł Mykietyn (born 1971), composer
The flag of Oława presents the Coat of Arms of Oława, on a diagonally divided white-red background.
The Coat of Arms presents a white rooster on a red-shield background, looking to the left. There are two traditional hypothesis for the origin of the Coat of Arms:
- The symbol links in with Walloonian weavers; historically located in Oława's land - and the Coat of Arms of Wallonia - a red rooster on a yellow background.
- The shield originates from the town Coat of Arms of the Czech knight family of Olav.
Neither hypothesis explains the look of the Coat of Arms in relation to Oława. The Coat of Arms of Oława is identical on the basis and content of the Kur Coat of Arms.
On the basis that the Coat of Arms of Oława is in relation to the Kur Coat of Arms, such hypothesis can be deemed highly agreeable. The Kur Coat of Arms can be linked to Jan of Kur, a knight of Konrad I of Głogów, being the owner of the village of Kurów Wielki in 1266, in County of Polkowice. The Coat of Arms can also be also traced back to the personage of Szyban von Der - the court adjudicator of Henry III of Głogów - erroneously equated to Szaban Tader, a castellan of the Świny Castle, mentioned in Franciszek Piekosiński's book - Heraldyka polska wieków średnich - (Heraldry of Polish Middle Ages) published in Kraków, in 1899; where the document is sealed with the town's Coat of Arms from 1300.
Oława is the centre for industry and production in the Oława County. The town's industries include the production of electronics (namely Electrolux Poland and Nardi Appliances), furniture and car parts.
Largest industries include:Zm Silesia SA (formerly Huta Oława S.A.) – production of zinc oxide, lead oxide and cadmium oxide
SCA Hygiene Products – production of nappies for toddlers and adults
DS Smith – packaging production
Autoliv Poland – production of seat belts and car airbags
Centrozłom Wrocław PPZM – branch of metal recycling
The Lorenz Bahlsen Snack-World Sp. z o.o. – food production
Ergis-Eurofilms S.A. – packaging production
MetalErg – furniture processing and packaging
Tabex – car parts production
ZNTK Oława Sp. z o.o. – train repair department
Zakpol – architrave production
Marco – plastic materials production
Formtech – plastic materials production
Rotex – plastic materials production
Atex Sp. z o.o. – muffler and petrol tank production
Electrolux Poland – electronics
Nardi Appliances Poland – electronics
Standis Polska Sp. z o.o. - shop furniture production
Bama Europa Sp. z o.o. - confectionery production