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Microhylidae

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Kingdom  Animalia
Order  Anura
Scientific name  Microhylidae
Rank  Family
Phylum  Chordata
Suborder  Neobatrachia
Higher classification  Microhyloidea
Microhylidae Narrowmouth Toads Family Microhylidae iNaturalistorg

Lower classifications  Kaloula, Banded bullfrog, Microhyla, Tomato frog, Microhyla ornata

The Microhylidae, commonly known as narrow-mouthed frogs, are a geographically widespread family of frogs. The 584 species are in 61 genera and 11 subfamilies, which is the largest number of genera of any frog family.

Contents

Microhylidae Microhylidae Chamela Biosphere Reserve Mexico June 2008

Evolution

Microhylidae amphibiaweborglistsfaminfoimagesmicrohylidaejpg

A molecular phylogenetic study by van der Meijden, et. al (2007) has estimated the initial internal divergence of the Microhylidae family to have taken place about 66 millions years old, or immediately after the Cretaceous extinction event. The most recent common ancestor of the Microhylidae and their closest ranoid relatives is estimated to have lived 116 million years ago in Gondwana.

Description

Microhylidae Microhylidae Wikispecies

As suggested by their name, microhylids are mostly small frogs. Many species are below 1.5 cm (0.59 in) in length, although some species are as large as 9 cm (3.5 in). They can be arboreal or terrestrial, and some even live close to water. The ground-dwellers are often found under leaf litter within forests, occasionally venturing out at night to hunt. The two main shapes for the microhylids are wide bodies and narrow mouths and normal frog proportions. Those with narrow mouths generally eat termites and ants, and the others have diets typical of most frogs. Egg-laying habits are highly varied.

Reproduction

Microhylidae Microhylidae

The microhylids of New Guinea and Australia completely bypass the tadpole stage, with direct development from egg to frog. The arboreal species can therefore lay the eggs within the trees, and never need venture to the ground. Where species do have tadpoles, these almost always lack the teeth or horny beaks typical of the tadpoles of other families.

Anatomy

Microhylidae Microhylidae

The skull has paired palatines and frontoparietals. The facial nerve passes through the anterior acoustic foramen in the auditory capsule; the trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia are fused to form a prootic ganglion. The eight (or seven) presacral holochordal vertebrae are all procoelous except for a biconcave surface on last presacral. The pectoral girdle is firmisternal and some show reduced clavicle and procoracoids. The terminal phalanges are blunt, pointed, or T-shaped. The tadpole lacks keratinized mouth parts and has a large spiracular chamber emptied by a caudomedial spiracle.

Taxonomy

  • subfamily Adelastinae Peloso, Frost, Richards, Rodrigues, Donnellan, Matsui, Raxworthy, Biju, Lemmon, Lemmon, & Wheeler, 2015
  • genus Adelastes Zweifel, 1986
  • subfamily Asterophryinae Günther, 1858
  • genus Aphantophryne Fry, 1917
  • genus Asterophrys Tschudi, 1838
  • genus Austrochaperina Fry, 1912
  • genus Barygenys Parker, 1936
  • genus Callulops Boulenger, 1888
  • genus Choerophryne Van Kampen, 1914
  • genus Cophixalus Boettger, 1892
  • genus Copiula Méhely, 1901
  • genus Gastrophrynoides Noble, 1926
  • genus Genyophryne Boulenger, 1890
  • genus Hylophorbus Macleay, 1878
  • genus Liophryne Boulenger, 1897
  • genus Mantophryne Boulenger, 1897
  • genus Metamagnusia Günther, 2009
  • genus Oninia Günther, Stelbrink & von Rintelen, 2010
  • genus Oreophryne Boettger, 1895
  • genus Oxydactyla Van Kampen, 1913
  • genus Paedophryne Kraus, 2010
  • genus Pseudocallulops Günther, 2009
  • genus Sphenophryne Peters & Doria, 1878
  • genus Xenorhina Peters, 1863
  • subfamily Chaperininae Peloso, Frost, Richards, Rodrigues, Donnellan, Matsui, Raxworthy, Biju, Lemmon, Lemmon, & Wheeler, 2015
  • genus Chaperina Mocquard, 1892
  • subfamily Cophylinae Cope, 1889
  • genus Anodonthyla Müller, 1892
  • genus Cophyla Boettger, 1880
  • genus Madecassophryne Guibé, 1974
  • genus Plethodontohyla Boulenger, 1882
  • genus Rhombophryne Boettger, 1880
  • subfamily Dyscophinae Boulenger, 1882
  • genus Dyscophus Grandidier, 1872
  • subfamily Gastrophryninae Fitzinger, 1843
  • genus Arcovomer Carvalho, 1954
  • genus Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904
  • genus Ctenophryne Mocquard, 1904
  • genus Dasypops Miranda-Ribeiro, 1924
  • genus Dermatonotus Méhely, 1904
  • genus Elachistocleis Parker, 1927
  • genus Gastrophryne Fitzinger, 1843
  • genus Hamptophryne Carvalho, 1954
  • genus Hypopachus Keferstein, 1867
  • genus Myersiella Carvalho, 1954
  • genus Stereocyclops Cope, 1870
  • subfamily Hoplophryninae Noble, 1931
  • genus Hoplophryne Barbour & Loveridge, 1928
  • genus Parhoplophryne Barbour & Loveridge, 1928
  • subfamily Kalophryninae Mivart, 1869
  • genus Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838
  • subfamily Melanobatrachinae Noble, 1931
  • genus Melanobatrachus Beddome, 1878
  • subfamily Microhylinae Günther, 1858
  • genus Glyphoglossus Gunther, 1869 "1868"
  • genus Kaloula Gray, 1831
  • genus Metaphrynella Parker, 1934
  • genus Microhyla Tschudi, 1838
  • genus Micryletta Dubois, 1987
  • genus Phrynella Boulenger, 1887
  • genus Uperodon Duméril & Bibron, 1841
  • subfamily Otophryninae Wassersug & Pyburn, 1987
  • genus Otophryne Boulenger, 1900
  • genus Synapturanus Carvalho, 1954
  • subfamily Phrynomerinae Noble, 1931
  • genus Phrynomantis Peters, 1867
  • subfamily Scaphiophryninae Laurent, 1946
  • genus Paradoxophyla Blommers-Schlösser & Blanc, 1991
  • genus Scaphiophryne Boulenger, 1882
  • Range

    Frogs from the Microhylidae occur throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of North America, South America, Africa, eastern India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia. Although most are found in tropical or subtropical regions, a few species can be found in arid or nontropical areas. They are the majority of frog species in New Guinea and Madagascar.

    The ranges of each subfamily are:

  • Hoplophryninae: Africa
  • Scaphiophryninae: Madagascar
  • Dyscophinae: Madagascar
  • Microhylinae: Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia
  • Asterophryinae: Australia, New Guinea
  • Phrynomerinae: Africa
  • Kalophryninae: Southeast Asia
  • Otophyninae: South America
  • Cophylinae: Madagascar
  • Gastrophryninae: New World
  • Melanobatrachinae: South Asia
  • Chaperininae: Southeast Asia
  • Adelastinae: South America
  • References

    Microhylidae Wikipedia