Ginter began his career with SV March before he moved to the youth squad of SC Freiburg for the 2005–06 season. With the A-youth squad, he won the Junior DFB-Pokal.
In January 2012, Ginter trained with Freiburg's first team due, in part, to a loss of several players from the roster during the winter transfer window. On 21 January 2012, Ginter made his professional debut when he was substituted in for Anton Putsila in the 70th minute against fellow relegation battlers FC Augsburg. In the 88th minute of the game, he scored the winning goal from a free-kick by Michael Lumb for his team in the 1–0 victory. The goal, which came two days after Ginter's 18th birthday, made him SCF's youngest Bundesliga goalscorer in the club's history. The record was previously held by Dennis Aogo. Two days later, on 23 January, Ginter signed a contract to join the first team of SC Freiburg.
On 17 July 2014 Ginter signed for Borussia Dortmund on a five-year deal. He made his debut on 13 August, playing the full match as they won the DFL-Supercup 2–0 against Bayern Munich at the Westfalenstadion.
On 4 July 2017, Ginter signed with Dortmund rivals Mönchengladbach on a four-year deal. The move was worth around 17 million euros.
Ginter is a German senior international having also represented his nation at U18, U19 and U21 levels.
He represented the under-21 team at the 2015 European Championship in the Czech Republic, starting all 4 matches. In their second group match at the Eden Arena in Prague against Denmark, following a Kevin Volland brace, Ginter rounded off the scoring by heading in Amin Younes' cross in the 53rd minute, leading to a 3-0 victory.
On 5 March 2014, he earned his first cap for the senior national team of his country after coming on as a 90th-minute substitute for Mesut Özil in the 1–0 win over Chile in a friendly match at the Olympiastadion in Berlin. He became the 900th player to be capped by the German national team.
In June, he was named as the youngest player in Germany's 23-man squad for the 2014 FIFA World Cup which went on to win the tournament, although he did not enter the field of play at any point.
He was part of the squad for the 2016 Summer Olympics, where Germany won the silver medal.As of 1 September 2017
FIFA World Cup: 2014
Summer Olympic Games: Silver Medal, 2016
FIFA Confederations Cup: 2017
Fritz Walter Medal: U19 Gold Medal 2013
Fritz Walter Medal: U18 Gold Medal 2012