Lower Alloways Creek Township was formed on June 17, 1767, when Alloways Creek Township was subdivided and Upper Alloways Creek Township (now Alloway Township) was also formed. The township was incorporated by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798 on February 21, 1798, as one of New Jersey's original group of 104 townships. The name Alloway is derivative of Allowas, a local Native American chief.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 72.455 square miles (187.659 km2), including 45.230 square miles (117.146 km2) of land and 27.225 square miles (70.513 km2) of water (37.57%).
Hancock's Bridge (with a 2010 Census population of 254) is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located within Lower Alloways Creek Township, and home to the township's municipal building, police station and a post office.
The township includes the great majority of Artificial Island, the northern tip of which is crossed east-westward by the New Jersey-Delaware state line, so it borders a tiny portion of New Castle County, Delaware, which is one of two areas of land of Delaware (and New Castle County) that is east of the Delaware River, the other being Finns Point, also part of New Castle County, DE, adjacent to Pennsville Township.
Other unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Alder Cove, Arnold Point, Canton, Cumberland, Harmersville, Haskells Mills, Maskellers Mill, New Bridge and Woods Landing.
The township borders the Salem County municipalities of Elsinboro Township, Quinton Township and Salem. Lower Alloways Creek Township also borders the Delaware Bay, Cumberland County and a small point of land that is located within Delaware's Twelve-Mile Circle.
The 2010 United States Census counted 1,770 people, 679 households, and 503.1 families residing in the township. The population density was 39.1 per square mile (15.1/km2). The township contained 727 housing units at an average density of 16.1 per square mile (6.2/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 96.95% (1,716) White, 1.36% (24) Black or African American, 0.28% (5) Native American, 0.17% (3) Asian, 0.00% (0) Pacific Islander, 0.11% (2) from other races, and 1.13% (20) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.53% (27) of the population.
Out of a total of 679 households, 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.9% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the township, 21.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, and 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.2 years. For every 100 females the census counted 96.0 males, but for 100 females at least 18 years old, it was 94.7 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $66,384 (with a margin of error of +/- $3,808) and the median family income was $72,969 (+/- $7,867). Males had a median income of $46,964 (+/- $6,435) versus $43,083 (+/- $8,815) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $27,325 (+/- $2,057). about 0.0% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 1,851 people, 693 households, and 537 families residing in the township. The population density was 39.6 people per square mile (15.3/km²). There were 730 housing units at an average density of 15.6 per square mile (6.0/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 96.38% White, 2.16% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.16% from other races, and 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.49% of the population.
There were 693 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.4% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the township the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $55,078, and the median income for a family was $59,653. Males had a median income of $44,081 versus $30,313 for females. The per capita income for the township was $21,962. About 4.2% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over.
Lower Alloways Creek Township is governed under the Township form of government. The five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle. At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor and another as Deputy Mayor.
As of 2016, members of the Lower Alloways Creek Township Committee are Mayor Ellen B. Pompper (R, term on township committee ends December 31, 2018; term as mayor ends 2016), Deputy Mayor Timothy W. Bradway (D, term on committee ends 2018; term as deputy mayor ends 2016), Robert F. Breslin, III (R, 2016), Jeffrey P. Palombo (R, 2016) and Richard W. Venable Sr. (I, 2017).
Lower Alloways Creek Township is located in the 2nd Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 3rd state legislative district.
New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Frank LoBiondo (R, Ventnor City). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 3rd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Stephen M. Sweeney (D, West Deptford Township) and in the General Assembly by John J. Burzichelli (D, Paulsboro) and Adam Taliaferro (D, Woolwich Township). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Salem County is governed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders who are elected at-large to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Director and a Deputy Director from among its members. As of 2014, Salem County's Freeholders (with party, residence, term-end year and committee chairmanship listed in parentheses) are Director Julie A. Acton (R, Pennsville Township, 2016; Administration), Deputy Director Dale A. Cross (R, Pennsville Township, 2014; Public Safety), Bruce L. Bobbitt (D, Pilesgrove Township, 2014; Public Services), Ben Laury (R, Elmer, 2015; Public Works) Beth E. Timberman (D, Woodstown, 2015; Social Services), Robert J. Vanderslice (R, Pennsville Township, 2014; Health and Human Services) Lee R. Ware (D, Elsinboro Township, 2016; Transportation, Agriculture and Cultural Affairs). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Gilda T. Gill (2014), Sheriff Charles M. Miller (2015) and Surrogate Nicki A. Burke (2015).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 1,302 registered voters in Lower Alloways Creek Township, of which 461 (35.4% vs. 30.6% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 337 (25.9% vs. 21.0%) were registered as Republicans and 503 (38.6% vs. 48.4%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There was one voter registered to another party. Among the township's 2010 Census population, 73.6% (vs. 64.6% in Salem County) were registered to vote, including 94.1% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 84.4% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Republican Mitt Romney received 65.7% of the vote (620 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 33.2% (313 votes), and other candidates with 1.2% (11 votes), among the 1,153 ballots cast by the township's 1,313 registered voters (209 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 87.8%. In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 657 votes (65.2% vs. 46.6% countywide), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 316 votes (31.4% vs. 50.4%) and other candidates with 23 votes (2.3% vs. 1.6%), among the 1,007 ballots cast by the township's 1,323 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.1% (vs. 71.8% in Salem County). In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 761 votes (70.0% vs. 52.5% countywide), ahead of Democrat John Kerry with 313 votes (28.8% vs. 45.9%) and other candidates with 9 votes (0.8% vs. 1.0%), among the 1,087 ballots cast by the township's 1,358 registered voters, for a turnout of 80.0% (vs. 71.0% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 78.9% of the vote (597 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 19.8% (150 votes), and other candidates with 1.3% (10 votes), among the 772 ballots cast by the township's 1,330 registered voters (15 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 58.0%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 438 votes (53.5% vs. 46.1% countywide), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 248 votes (30.3% vs. 39.9%), Independent Chris Daggett with 95 votes (11.6% vs. 9.7%) and other candidates with 19 votes (2.3% vs. 2.0%), among the 819 ballots cast by the township's 1,328 registered voters, yielding a 61.7% turnout (vs. 47.3% in the county).
The Lower Alloways Creek Township School District serves students in pre-kindergarten through eighth grade at Lower Alloways Creek Elementary School. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its one school had an enrollment of 276 students and 21.4 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.9:1.
Public school students in ninth through twelfth grades attend Salem High School in Salem City, together with students from Elsinboro Township, Mannington Township and Quinton Township, as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Salem City School District. As of the 2014-15 school year, the high school had an enrollment of 317 students and 49.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 6.5:1.
As of May 2010, the township had a total of 49.78 miles (80.11 km) of roadways, of which 27.18 miles (43.74 km) were maintained by the municipality and 22.60 miles (36.37 km) by Salem County.
The only major roads that pass through are 600-series county routes.
Route 45 and Route 49 are accessible in neighboring municipalities. The closest limited access roads are two towns away which include Interstate 295 and the New Jersey Turnpike in Pennsville Township.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Lower Alloways Creek Township include:William Hancock, judges. Hancock Sr. commissioned Hancock House in 1734. Hancock Jr. was killed in 1778 in the Hancock's Bridge massacre.
Thomas Jones Yorke (1801-1882), Whig Party politician who served two terms in the United States House of Representatives.