In 736 AD, (the Tang Dynasty), the prefecture of Tingzhou was established in western Fujian, or Minxi (闽西), administering Changting, Huanglian and Xinluo counties. Six years later Xinluo was named Longyan for the nearby cavern, a famous scenic site.
Due to the ancient conflicts in central China and aggression from northern tribes, many Han people moved from central China to Longyan.
in 1734, the area was designated Longyan Prefecture by the imperial court. In 1913, it reverted to its former name Longyan County and in 1981, Longyan City was established.
Minxi was a strategic base during the Chinese Civil War.
It's said that tens of thousands of people from Longyan joined the PLA during the Chinese Civil War, and nearly every family had someone sacrificed lives on behalf of CCP side. There are more than 26,000 locals that took part in the Long March which in total is carried out by 86,000. Moreover, during 1955 and 1968, 68 people from Longyan were awarded Brigadier General or above, which accounts for 82% of all generals from Fujian province at the time, therefore, Longyan is also named after "The Home of Generals".
Unlike many Chinese cities, the forest coverage of Longyan reaches an unusually high 77.9%, which is unparalleled in Fujian province. Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, a part of the China Biosphere Reserve Network, is located in Longyan.
Goby Rhinogobius longyanensis was first described from Longyan and named after it. Presumably also the prehistoric bivalve Claraia longyanensis got its name from Longyan.
Longyan is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong and Ting Rivers. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Sanming to the north, Quanzhou to the east, Zhangzhou to the southeast, Meizhou (Guangdong) to the southwest, and Ganzhou (Jiangxi) to the west and northwest.
Longyan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with short, mild winters, and long, hot and humid summers. Despite its inland location, the city's summers rank among the mildest in the province, averaging lower than even Xiamen and the islands of Pingtan County, both of which receive significant maritime moderation. Rainfall is greatest in spring and early summer and at its least in autumn and early winter.
The prefecture-level city of Longyan had a population of 2,559,545 inhabitants as of 2010, according to the 2010 National Census. The population of Longyan in 2010 was 4.65% inferior than in 2000 (when the inhabitants of the city stand at 2,684,310), giving an average annual rate of growth of -0.47%.
The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Xinluo District (新罗区), together with the CPC and Public Security bureaux. The information about population uses the 2010 Census data.
Longyan is famous for it as the "Home of Hakka People", as 75% of the population is composed of Hakka people. The city of Changting is often referred to as the home of the Hakka, while the Ting River is known as the "mother river" of the Hakka people. The Hoklo people in Xinluo and Zhangping speak Hokkien, while their speech is somewhat influenced by Hakka Chinese. Due to the difference between Hoklo culture and Hakka's, there is a diversity of traditions and values in Longyan.
Longyan serves as a strategic center for the distribution of goods to Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. It also acts as a gateway for trade with Guangdong and Jiangxi province. It is the main connection between the inland and coastal area.
Longyan is rich in natural resources such as in important mineral deposits and forest zones. The Septwolves tobacco business is an important contributor to the local economy, as is the Zijin Mining group. The largest construction equipment maker Lonking Holdings is based in the city.Longyan Guanzhishan Airport
Longyan-Xiamen Railway (high-speed line opened in 2012), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway, Zhangping–Longchuan Railway.
Aw Boon Haw, from Yongding county, Tiger Balm King of Singapore
Aw Boon Par, brother of Aw Boon Haw, and the other half of the Tiger Balm empire.
Chen Hong (b. 1979), number 1 badminton player on the world ranking list from 2002 to 2003.
Deng Zihui (1896–1972) former Chinese vice premier (1951–1965), one of the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.
He Wenna (b. 1989), trampoline gymnast, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics.
Lin Dan (b. 1983), gold medalist at the 2012 and 2008 Summer Olympics, number 1 badminton player on the world ranking list from 2004 to 2008.
Ong Schan Tchow (1900–1945), leading artist whose exhibitions in China and South East Asia raised funds for the war relief effort and civilian victims of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Shi Zhiyong (b. 1980), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Yang Chengwu (1914–2004), general of the People's Liberation Army.
Zeng Jinyan (b. 1983), blogger and human rights activist.
Zhang Dingcheng (1898 – December 16, 1981), the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate from 1954 to 1975.
Zhang Xiangxiang (b. 1983), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics and bronze medalist at the 2000 Summer Olympics.