Trisha Shetty (Editor)

List of inorganic pigments

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The following list includes commercially or artistically important inorganic pigments of natural and synthetic origin.


Purple pigments

Aluminum pigments

  • Ultramarine violet: (PV15) Silicate of sodium and aluminum containing sulfur.
  • Copper pigments:

  • Han Purple: BaCuSi2O6.
  • Cobalt pigments:

  • Cobalt Violet: (PV14) cobaltous orthophosphate.
  • Manganese pigments:

  • Manganese violet: NH4MnP2O7 (PV16) Manganic ammonium pyrophosphate
  • Blue pigments

    Aluminum pigments:

  • Ultramarine (PB29): a complex naturally occurring pigment of sulfur-containing sodio-silicate (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4)
  • Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2
  • Cobalt pigments:

  • Cobalt Blue (PB28) and Cerulean Blue (PB35): cobalt(II) stannate
  • Copper pigments:

  • Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
  • Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
  • Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)
  • Iron pigments:

  • Prussian Blue (PB27): a synthetic pigment of ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe7(CN)18). The dye Marking blue is made by mixing Prussian Blue and alcohol.
  • Manganese pigments:

  • YInMn Blue: a synthetic pigment discovered by Dr. Mas Subramanian's lab at Oregon State University (YIn1−xMnxO3).
  • Green pigments

    Cadmium pigments:

  • Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Viridian (Cr2O3)
  • Chromium pigments:

  • Chrome green (PG17): chromic oxide (Cr2O3)
  • Viridian (PG18): a dark green pigment of hydrated chromic oxide (Cr2O3•H2O)
  • Cobalt pigments:

  • Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)
  • Copper pigments:

  • Malachite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
  • Paris Green: cupric acetoarsenite (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2)
  • Scheele’s Green (also called Schloss Green): cupric arsenite (CuHAsO3)
  • Verdigris: various poorly soluble copper salts, notably cupric acetate (Cu(CH3CO2)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
  • Other pigments:

  • Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)
  • Yellow pigments

    Arsenic pigments:

  • Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),
  • Cadmium pigments:

  • Cadmium Yellow (PY37): cadmium sulfide (CdS), which also occurs as the mineral greenockite.
  • Chromium pigments:

  • Chrome Yellow (PY34): lead chromate (PbCrO4), which also occurs as the mineral crocoite.
  • Cobalt pigments:

  • Aureolin(also called Cobalt Yellow) (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).
  • Iron Pigments:

  • Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)
  • Lead pigments:

  • Naples Yellow (PY41)
  • Lead-tin-yellow: PbSnO4 or Pb(Sn,Si)O3
  • Titanium pigments:

  • Titanium Yellow (PY53)
  • Tin Pigments:

  • Mosaic gold: stannic sulfide (SnS2)
  • Orange pigments

    Cadmium pigments:

  • Cadmium Orange (PO20): an intermediate between cadmium red and cadmium yellow: cadmium sulfoselenide.
  • Chromium pigments:

  • Chrome Orange: a now obscure pigment composed of a mixture of lead chromate and lead(II) oxide. (PbCrO4 + PbO)
  • Red pigments

    Arsenic pigments:

  • Realgar: an arsenic sulfide mineral (As4S4)
  • Cadmium pigments:

  • Cadmium Red (PR108): cadmium selenide (CdSe)
  • Iron oxide pigments:

  • Sanguine, Caput Mortuum, Indian Red, Venetian Red, Oxide Red (PR102)
  • Red Ochre (PR102): anhydrous Fe2O3
  • Burnt Sienna (PBr7): a pigment produced by heating Raw Sienna.
  • Lead pigments:

  • Minium (pigment): also known as red lead, lead tetroxide, Pb3O4
  • Mercury pigments:

  • Vermilion (PR106): Synthetic and natural pigment: Occurs naturally in mineral cinnabar. Mercuric sulfide (HgS)
  • Brown pigments

    Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)

  • Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
  • Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.
  • Black pigments

    Carbon pigments:

  • Carbon Black (PBk7)
  • Ivory Black (PBk9)
  • Vine Black (PBk8)
  • Lamp Black (PBk6)
  • Iron Pigments:

  • Mars Black (Iron black) (PBk11) (C.I. No.77499) : Fe3O4
  • Manganese pigments:

  • Manganese dioxide: blackish or brown in color, used since prehistoric times (MnO2)
  • Titanium pigments:

  • Titanium Black () : Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3)
  • White pigments

    Antimony pigments:

  • Antimony White: Stibous Oxide (Sb2O3)
  • Barium pigments:

  • Barium sulfate (PW5) : (BaSO4)
  • Lithopone: BaSO4*ZnS
  • Lead pigments:

  • Cremnitz White (PW1): basic Plumbous Carbonate ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2)
  • Titanium pigments:

  • Titanium White (PW6): Titanic Dioxide (TiO2)
  • Zinc pigments:

  • Zinc White (PW4): Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
  • Safety

    A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. Some of these pigments have often been banned.


    List of inorganic pigments Wikipedia

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