The following list includes commercially or artistically important inorganic pigments of natural and synthetic origin.
List of inorganic pigments Wikipedia
Aluminum pigmentsUltramarine violet: (PV15) Silicate of sodium and aluminum containing sulfur.
Copper pigments:Han Purple: BaCuSi2O6.
Cobalt pigments:Cobalt Violet: (PV14) cobaltous orthophosphate.
Manganese pigments:Manganese violet: NH4MnP2O7 (PV16) Manganic ammonium pyrophosphate
Aluminum pigments:Ultramarine (PB29): a complex naturally occurring pigment of sulfur-containing sodio-silicate (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4)
Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2
Cobalt pigments:Cobalt Blue (PB28) and Cerulean Blue (PB35): cobalt(II) stannate
Copper pigments:Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)
Iron pigments:Prussian Blue (PB27): a synthetic pigment of ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe7(CN)18). The dye Marking blue is made by mixing Prussian Blue and alcohol.
Manganese pigments:YInMn Blue: a synthetic pigment discovered by Dr. Mas Subramanian's lab at Oregon State University (YIn1−xMnxO3).
Cadmium pigments:Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Viridian (Cr2O3)
Chromium pigments:Chrome green (PG17): chromic oxide (Cr2O3)
Viridian (PG18): a dark green pigment of hydrated chromic oxide (Cr2O3•H2O)
Cobalt pigments:Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)
Copper pigments:Malachite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
Paris Green: cupric acetoarsenite (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2)
Scheele’s Green (also called Schloss Green): cupric arsenite (CuHAsO3)
Verdigris: various poorly soluble copper salts, notably cupric acetate (Cu(CH3CO2)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
Other pigments:Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)
Arsenic pigments:Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),
Cadmium pigments:Cadmium Yellow (PY37): cadmium sulfide (CdS), which also occurs as the mineral greenockite.
Chromium pigments:Chrome Yellow (PY34): lead chromate (PbCrO4), which also occurs as the mineral crocoite.
Cobalt pigments:Aureolin(also called Cobalt Yellow) (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).
Iron Pigments:Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)
Lead pigments:Naples Yellow (PY41)
Lead-tin-yellow: PbSnO4 or Pb(Sn,Si)O3
Titanium pigments:Titanium Yellow (PY53)
Tin Pigments:Mosaic gold: stannic sulfide (SnS2)
Cadmium pigments:Cadmium Orange (PO20): an intermediate between cadmium red and cadmium yellow: cadmium sulfoselenide.
Chromium pigments:Chrome Orange: a now obscure pigment composed of a mixture of lead chromate and lead(II) oxide. (PbCrO4 + PbO)
Arsenic pigments:Realgar: an arsenic sulfide mineral (As4S4)
Cadmium pigments:Cadmium Red (PR108): cadmium selenide (CdSe)
Iron oxide pigments:Sanguine, Caput Mortuum, Indian Red, Venetian Red, Oxide Red (PR102)
Red Ochre (PR102): anhydrous Fe2O3
Burnt Sienna (PBr7): a pigment produced by heating Raw Sienna.
Lead pigments:Minium (pigment): also known as red lead, lead tetroxide, Pb3O4
Mercury pigments:Vermilion (PR106): Synthetic and natural pigment: Occurs naturally in mineral cinnabar. Mercuric sulfide (HgS)
Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.
Carbon pigments:Carbon Black (PBk7)
Ivory Black (PBk9)
Vine Black (PBk8)
Lamp Black (PBk6)
Iron Pigments:Mars Black (Iron black) (PBk11) (C.I. No.77499) : Fe3O4
Manganese pigments:Manganese dioxide: blackish or brown in color, used since prehistoric times (MnO2)
Titanium pigments:Titanium Black () : Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3)
Antimony pigments:Antimony White: Stibous Oxide (Sb2O3)
Barium pigments:Barium sulfate (PW5) : (BaSO4)
Lead pigments:Cremnitz White (PW1): basic Plumbous Carbonate ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2)
Titanium pigments:Titanium White (PW6): Titanic Dioxide (TiO2)
Zinc pigments:Zinc White (PW4): Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. Some of these pigments have often been banned.