Coleman graduated from Northmont High School in Clayton, Ohio in 2006. He was ranked 14th at the position of cornerback according to scout.com for 2006.
Coleman played college football at Ohio State. At a spring practice during his first year, Coleman tackled wide receiver Tyson Gentry. Gentry became paralyzed. Coleman almost quit the football team before Gentry forgave him during a hospital visit. In 2009, Coleman made 68 tackles, five interceptions and three forced fumbles. He earned first-team All-American honors by Sporting News and first-team All-Big Ten honors.
Coleman was selected by the Philadelphia Eagles in the seventh round (244th overall) of the 2010 NFL Draft. He was signed to a four-year contract on June 3, 2010. On September 2, 2010, in the Eagles' final preseason game against the New York Jets, Coleman returned two fumbles for touchdowns (64 and 8 yards). In a November 7, 2010 game against the Indianapolis Colts, Coleman made a helmet-to-helmet hit on Colts wide receiver Austin Collie. Collie was immobilized as he was carried off the field on a stretcher and was later diagnosed with a concussion. Coleman was assessed a personal foul penalty, but was not fined for the hit. In a November 15, 2010 game against the Washington Redskins, Coleman made an interception at the Redskins' 37-yard line, leading to the third touchdown in the first quarter.
In an October 16, 2011 game against the Washington Redskins, Coleman made three interceptions, returning them for 24 yards. He was the first Eagles player since 1966 to have three interceptions in one game. Thanks in large part to his performance, the Eagles snapped a four-game losing streak with a 20–13 victory. Coleman was named the NFC Defensive Player of the Week. He was placed on injured reserve on December 28, 2011, due to a biceps injury.
On September 9, 2012, Coleman recorded two interceptions against Brandon Weeden and the Cleveland Browns. On October 28, 2012, Coleman recorded his second-career forced fumble against the Atlanta Falcons.
Coleman signed with the Minnesota Vikings on April 14, 2014. He was released on August 31.
Coleman signed with the Kansas City Chiefs on September 2, 2014. In his only year with the team, he led the team in interceptions with three. Coleman grabbed 2 interceptions against Phillip Rivers and the San Diego Chargers.
Coleman signed a two-year contract with the Carolina Panthers on March 16, 2015. During the Panthers win over the Indianapolis Colts, Coleman recorded eight total tackles along with an interception returned for 15 yards. During a Week 12 game against the Cowboys on Thanksgiving, Coleman intercepted a pass by Tony Romo on the first drive of the game and ran it back for a touchdown. Coleman recorded his sixth interception of the season the following week against the New Orleans Saints and recorded his seventh interception against the Atlanta Falcons the next game. Coleman recorded two interceptions in the NFC Championship Game versus the Arizona Cardinals. On February 7, 2016, Coleman was part of the Panthers team that played in Super Bowl 50. In the game, the Panthers fell to the Denver Broncos by a score of 24–10. In the loss, Coleman recorded five tackles.
On July 26, 2016, Coleman signed a three-year contract extension with the Panthers.
Coleman co-founded the Ohio State chapter of Uplifting Athletes. Coleman's father, Ron, was diagnosed with breast cancer in December 2006. Ron was an assistant principal at Walter E. Stebbins High School in Riverside, Ohio, Now an health teacher at Mad River Middle School in Riverside Ohio.