A graduate from Hampshire's cricket academy, Vince – along with fellow academy graduates Benny Howell, Chris Morgan, Tom Parsons, and Hamza Riazuddin – signed a one-year deal with the club at the start of 2009. He made his Championship debut on 11 June 2009 against Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. His recent impressive batting performances earned him a call up to the England U-19 side for their test series against Bangladesh.
According to Duncan Fletcher, who acted as a consult for Hampshire and was the former coach of the England team, Vince is reminiscent of former England batsman Michael Vaughan.
Following the retirement of John Crawley during the 2009 season, Vince has been a regular for Hampshire in all forms of the game. He was a member of Hampshire's 2010 Friends Provident t20 winning team which defeated Somerset. Vince scored his maiden first-class century in a county championship against Yorkshire, scoring 180 runs in a 278 run stand with James Adams, which is the county's 4th highest partnership in first-class cricket.
He made his One Day International debut for England against Ireland on 8 May 2015.
He made his Twenty20 International debut for England against Pakistan on 26 November 2015. He scored 41 in the first game as England won by 14 runs, and then scored 38 in the second as England won again. Vince scored 46 in the final game as the scores finished tied and England won the Super Over. Vince was named man of the series after his contributions in all three games vs Pakistan.
He played one game in the 2016 T20 World Cup, replacing the injured Alex Hales in the match against Afghanistan. Vince scored 22 and England won the match.
In May 2016 he was named in the Test squad for Sri Lanka's tour of England, and won his first Test cap in the first Test at Headingley. However, in his first innings he only scored 9 runs. He fielded in the slips and took a good catch off the bowling of Ben Stokes, as England won by an innings and 88 runs. In the second Test Vince scored 35 in England's first innings, and was not required to bat in the second as England won by nine wickets. Vince played in the third and final Test of the series, scoring ten in the first innings before being dismissed for a duck in the second innings, as the match ended in a draw. He played in the final ODI match of the series, replacing the injured Alex Hales, and scored 51, helping England to reach 324 and win the match by 122 runs. He scored 16 in the only T20 match between the sides, which England won by eight wickets.
Vince kept his place for the Test series against Pakistan, and made 16 in the first innings of the first Test. He was dismissed for 42 in the second innings as England lost by 75 runs. In the second Test, he made 18 as England made 589/8 in their first innings and won the match by 330 runs. In the third Test, Vince made 39 in England’s first innings and followed this up with 42 in their second innings to help England reach 445/6 and secure victory by a margin of 141 runs. Vince struggled in the final Test, making one in the first innings and being dismissed for a duck in the second innings as England lost by 10 wickets.
Vince scored 16 in the first ODI against Bangladesh, as England won by 21 runs. In the second match, he made 5 as England lost and Bangladesh levelled the series at 1-1. Vince made his highest score in the final match of the series, scoring 32 as England chased down Bangladesh’s target of 278 to win the series 2-1.