James Carroll Robinson (August 19, 1823 – November 3, 1886) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.
Born near Paris, Illinois, Robinson moved to Clark County, Illinois, with his parents in 1825. He received a limited schooling. He engaged in agricultural pursuits. He served as a corporal during the Mexican War. He studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1850 and commenced practice in Marshall, Illinois.
Robinson was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh, and Thirty-eighth Congresses (March 4, 1859 – March 3, 1865). He did not seek renomination in 1864, but was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Illinois. He resumed the practice of law in Marshall. He moved to Sangamon County, Illinois, in 1869 and continued the practice of law in Springfield.
Robinson was elected to the Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses (March 4, 1871 – March 3, 1875). He served as chairman of the Committee on Mileage (Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Congresses). He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1874 to the Forty-fourth Congress. He resumed the practice of law. He was appointed a member of the Illinois Board of Livestock Commissioners in 1886. He died in Springfield, Illinois, November 3, 1886. He was interred in Oak Ridge Cemetery.