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Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
The southern boundary of Ifriqiya was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Bejaia. The capital was briefly Carthage, then Qayrawan (Kairouan), then Mahdia, then Tunis. The Arabs generally settled on the lower ground while the native population settled in the mountains.
The Aghlabids, from their base in Kairouan, initiated the invasion of Sicily beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was conquered by the Normans.
Ifriqiya onair aiesec in tunisia
(Cyrenaica and Tripolitana conquered in 643 by Amr ibn al-As, organized as new province with regional capital at Barqa; first governors uncertain.)
Mu'awiya ibn Hudaij al-Kindi, c.665–666 — ruled from Barqa
Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, 666–674 — conquered south Tunisia (Byzacena), founded Kairouan (670)
Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, 674–681
Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, (restored), 681–683 — led cavalcade to Morocco, ostensibly bringing entire Maghreb under submission.
(Oqba killed. Arabs expelled from Byzacena, occupied by Awraba Berber chieftain Kusaila, 683–686)
Zuhair ibn Qais al-Balawi, 683–689 — initially only Barqa, recovered Byzacena in 686.
(Zohair killed. Berbers under Kahina recover Byzacena in 689. No clear Arab governor, 689–92).
Hassan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani, 692–703 — initially only Barqa. Captured Carthage in 695 (lost again), then again in 698 (final). Permanent conquest of Ifriqiya, organized as new province, separately from Egypt, directly under Umayyad Caliph, with capital at Kairouan.
Umayyad Governors of Ifriqiya
Musa ibn Nusair al-Lakhmi, 703–715
(During conquest of Spain, Abd Allah ibn Musa was regent in Kairouan, while Musa was in al-Andalus, 712–715)
Muhammad ibn Yazid, 715–718
Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir, 718–720
Yazid ibn Abi Muslim, 720–721
Muhammad ibn Yazid (restored), 721
Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 721–727
Obeida ibn Abd al-Rahman es-Solemi, 727–32
Oqba ibn Qudama (temporary), 732–734
Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili, 734–41. (Berber Revolt begins 740)
Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi, 741
Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri (de jure, in Córdoba) and Abd al-Rahman ibn Oqba al-Ghaffari (de facto, in Kairouan), 741–42
Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 742–44
Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya
(Independence from Caliphate: Berber statelets in Morocco; Fihrid coup-d'etat in Kairouan, 745)
Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, 745–755.
Ilyas ibn Habib al-Fihri, 755
Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, 755–57
(Fihrid Ifriqiya conquered by Kharijite Berbers in 757 — Sufrite Warfajuma in Kairouan, Ibadite Nafusa in Tripoli)
Asim ibn Jamil al-Warfajumi (Sufrite), 757–758
Abd al-Malik ibn Abi 'l-Jad al-Waranjumi (Sufrite), 758
(Ibadites of Tripoli depose Sufrites in Kairouan, 758)
Abu al-Khattab Abd al-Ala ibn al-Samh al-Maafiri (Ibadite), 758–760
Abd al-Rahman ibn Rustem al-Farissi (Ibadite), 760–62
Abbasid governors in Kairouan
(Abbasid invasion of Ifriqiya; Ibadites reduced to Tahert and Nafusa, 762)
Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i 762–765 (former Abbasid governor of Egypt)
Isa ibn Yussuf al-Khurasani 765
al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamimi 765–766
al-Hassan ibn Harb al-Kindi 766–767
al-Mikhariq ibn Ghuffar 767–768
Umar ibn Hafs al-Muhallabi 768–771
Habib ibn Habib al-Muhallabi 771
Umar ibn Hafs al-Muhallabi 771
Abu Hatim Yaqub ibn Labib al-Khariji 771–772 (Ibadi rebel)
Yazid ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 772–787
Dawud ibn Yazid ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 787
Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 787–791
Nasr ibn Habib al-Muhallabi 791–793
al-Fadl ibn Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 793–795
Harthama ibn Ayan 795–797
Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Akki, 797–799
Tammam ibn Tamim al-Tamimi 799–800
Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Akki 800
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim (800–812)
Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim (812–817)
Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim(817–838)
al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim (838–841)
Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan (841–856)
Ahmad ibn Muhammad (856–863)
Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas (863)
Abu 'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad (863–875)
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (875–902)
Abu 'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim (902–903)
Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah (903–909)
Abū Muḥammad ʻAbdu l-Lāh (ʻUbaydu l-Lāh) al-Mahdī bi'llāh (909–934) — founder of the Fatimid dynasty