Puneet Varma (Editor)

Hydrolase

Updated on
Edit
Like
Comment
Share on FacebookTweet on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Reddit

In biochemistry, a hydrolase or hydrolytic enzyme is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond. For example, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction is a hydrolase:

Contents

A–B + H2O → A–OH + B–H

Nomenclature

Systematic names of hydrolases are formed as "substrate hydrolase." However, common names are typically in the form "substratease." For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase that cleaves nucleic acids.

Classification

Hydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses, based upon the bonds they act upon:

  • EC 3.1: ester bonds (esterases: nucleases, phosphodiesterases, lipase, phosphatase)
  • EC 3.2: sugars (DNA glycosylases, glycoside hydrolase)
  • EC 3.3: ether bonds
  • EC 3.4: peptide bonds (Proteases/peptidases)
  • EC 3.5: carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds
  • EC 3.6 acid anhydrides (acid anhydride hydrolases, including helicases and GTPase)
  • EC 3.7 carbon-carbon bonds
  • EC 3.8 halide bonds
  • EC 3.9: phosphorus-nitrogen bonds
  • EC 3.10: sulphur-nitrogen bonds
  • EC 3.11: carbon-phosphorus bonds
  • EC 3.12: sulfur-sulfur bonds
  • EC 3.13: carbon-sulfur bonds
  • Clinical considerations

    Hydrolase secreted by Lactobacillus jensenii in the human gut stimulates the liver to secrete bile salts that aids in the digestion of food.

    Etymology and pronunciation

    The word hydrolase (/ˈhdrls, -lz/) suffixes the combining form of -ase to the hydrol syllables of hydrolysis.

    References

    Hydrolase Wikipedia