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Samiksha Jaiswal

Horgen culture

Period  Later Neolithic
Preceded by  Pfyn culture
Dates  3,500–2,850 BC
Horgen culture
Geographical range  Southern Germany and Switzerland near Lake Constance, Rhine river basin.
Characteristics  simple pottery, well-developed stone tools, lake shore settlements

The Horgen culture is one of several archaeological cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland. The Horgen culture may derive from the Pfyn culture and early Horgen pottery is similar to the earlier Cortaillod culture pottery of Twann, Switzerland. It is named for one of the principal sites, in Horgen, Switzerland.

Dates

The Horgen culture started around 3500/3400 cal BC and lasting until 2850 cal BC. Tree ring dates range from 3370 – 2864 BC.

Distribution

The Horgen core area is in Northern Switzerland and Southwest Germany near Lake Constance, but it may have reached farther north along the Rhine River. It may have had ties to the French Seine-Oise-Marne culture. Sites include Horgen, Hauterive-Champréves, Eschenz and Zürich.

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At Feldmeilen-Vorderfeld and Meilen on the right bank of Lake Zurich near Zürich, four layers of Pfyn culture artifacts (4350-3950 BC calibrated) are followed by five Horgen culture (3350-2950 BC) layers were found at Feldmeilen. In nearby Meilen, one Pfyn layer (4250-4000 BC) followed by three Horgen (3300-2500 BC) layers were discovered.

Traits

There were three phases of pottery; early, middle and late. The early pottery exhibits an affinity with the Pfyn and maybe the Cortaillod at Twann, Switzerland. The spindle whorls on the pottery may indicate connections to the southern Funnelbeaker culture and early Baden culture. The middle phase (found at Naschdorf-Strandbad, Lake Constance and Dullenried, Federsee) may be influenced by more westerly traditions. The final Horgen phase exhibits similarities to the Burgerroth, Wartberg, and Goldberg III cultures.

The pottery was less refined and decorated than the earlier Cortaillod culture. However, the flint industry was well developed and produced elegant stone tools.

Pigs became increasing important during the Horgen era. Pig bones were the most common bones found in the village midden heaps, accounting for up to 70% of all bones.

References

Horgen culture Wikipedia


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