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Country  India
Population  622,701 (2001)
Language spoken  Hindi
Area  5,484 km2
State  Uttar Pradesh
District  Gorakhpur
Colleges and Universities  Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, Baba Raghav Das Medical College, Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology - Gorakhpur

Gorakhpur also known as Gorakhshpur is a city along the banks of Rapti river in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the Nepal border 273 east of the state capital Lucknow. It is the administrative headquarter of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division.


Map of Gorakhpur

The city is home to the Gorakshanath Temple (Gorakhnath Math), many historic Buddhist sites which are nearby and the Gita Press, worlds largest publisher of Hindu religious texts. Gorakhpur is a religious center containing many historic temples and sites for both Hinduism and Buddhism. It is named after the ascetic Guru Gorakshanath, a saint that popularized "Hath Yoga" a form of yoga which concentrates on mastering natural powers. The Gorakhnath Temple where he gained knowledge is a major tourist attraction in the city.Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana and was cremated in Kushinagar, located near Gorakhpur.

Gorakhpur a wonderful city

The Gorakhshapitheshwara (Head Priest of Gorakhnath Math) is the cultural Patron of the city. The current M.P from Gorakhpur Shri Yogi Adityanath is the head priest Gorakhnath Math and successor of Late Shri Avaiydyanath. Many prominent poets and politicians are from Gorakhpur. The city is often said to be the centre of Nath Sampradaya of Hinduism. Gorakhpur is famous for its Terracotta works. The city has been culture capital of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh since hundreds of years.


Gorakhpur is also the headquarters of the North Eastern Railways Zone of the Indian Railways and serves as an important center for education and trade. The road route to Nepal from India passes through the city. The city has two Residential Universities and Medical College.Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University is one of the oldest universities in Uttar Pradesh. The city serves as an education, health and trade hub.


The district of Gorakhpur lies between Lat. 26°13?N and 27°29?N and Long. 83°05?E and 83°56?E. The district occupies the north-eastern corner of the state along with the district of Deoria, and comprises a large stretch of land lying to the north of the river Rapti, which forms the southern boundary with the Azamgarh.Ambedkar Nagar district On the west Basti and east adjoins Deoria and the Chhoti Gandak Nadi and further south the Jharna Nala forms the dividing line. To the north it meets with Maharajganj, Kushinagar and Nepal. The city is 270 km distant from state capital Lucknow. Gorakhpur is surrounded by dams on three sides.


Gorakhpur Beautiful Landscapes of Gorakhpur

The district is located in the Terai region, in the foothills of the Shivalik Himalayas. It is located on the bank of river Rapti and Rohin rivers originating in Nepal that often causes severe floods. The Rapti is interconnected through many other small rivers following meandering courses across the Gangetic Plain. Situated on the basin of rivers Rapti and Rohin, the geographical shape of the Gorakhpur City is of bowl, surrounded by the river and other small streams from three sides. The west of the city is guarded by Rapti River while the east is associated with Sal Forests, which is a major tourist attraction, the Vinod Van. The south is showered with the large stretch of a lake, the Ramgarh Tal and north is the plinth of citys advancement. The peak of Dhaulagiri, some 8,230 meters above sea-level, is visible under favourable climatic conditions as far south as Gorakhpur itself.

Gorakhpur Beautiful Landscapes of Gorakhpur

Gorakhpur is one of the most flood-prone districts in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Data over the past 100 years show a considerable increase in the intensity and frequency of floods, with extreme events occurring every three to four years. Roughly 20% of the population is affected by floods, which are an annual occurrence in some areas, causing huge loss of life, health and livelihoods for the poor inhabitants, as well as damage to public and private property.

Research from the Climate and Development Knowledge shows that measures are in place to mitigate disaster risk in the form of the Gorakhpur District Disaster Management Plan. However, this plan focuses on how agencies can coordinate following floods and lacks a systematic approach to identifying weather-related hazards and vulnerability.


In ancient times the geographical area of Gorakhpur included the modern districts of Basti, Deoria, Kushinagar, Azamgarh. According to Vedic writings, the earliest known monarch ruling over this region with his capital at Ayodhya was Iksvaku, founder of the Solar dynasty. The solar dynasty produced a number of kings; Rama of the Ramayana is most well-known. The entire region was an important centre of Aryan culture and civilization, a part of the famous kingdoms of Koshala and Malla, two of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (states) in 6th century BCE India. The region also formed part of Aryavart and Madhyadesh

Gorakhpur in the past, History of Gorakhpur

Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, who was born at Kapilvastu in Nepal, renounced his princely clothing at the confluence of the rivers Rapti and Rohini, near Gorakhpur, before setting out on his quest of truth in 600 BCE. Later he died in the courtyard of Mall King Sastipal Mall at his capital Kushinara which is now known as Kushinagar, there is a monument to this effect at Kushinagar even today. The city is also associated with the travels of Lord Buddhas contemporary Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. Lord Mahavira was born at a place not very far from Gorakhpur. Later he took his mahaparinirvan at his maternal uncles palace at Pava which is about 15 kilometers from Kushinagar(Pavapuri and Kushinara were the twin capital of Mall dynasty which was part 16 Mahajanpads of ancient India). Malla dynasty was following democratic way of governance from their Santhagara and thus Gorakhpur is also the part of ancient Gana sangha. There is a mention in the epic Mahabharata that Prince Bhim, the younger brother of King Yudhistr had visited Gorakhpur to invite saint Gorakhnath to attend his Rajsuuya Yagna.

After the Iksvaku dynasty was conquered by Magadhas Nanda Dynasty in the 4th century BC, Gorakhpur became in turn part of the Maurya, Shunga, Kushana, Gupta and Harsha empires. The great emperor of India Chandragupta maurya belonged to Moriyas, a Kshatriya (warrior) clan of a little ancient republic of Pippalivana located between Rummindei in the Nepali Tarai and Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.

In the 10th century, the Tharu king of Mausen Madan Singh ruled over Gorakhpur city and the adjoining area. Gorakhpur was also birthplace of King Vikas Sankrityayan.


The economy of Gorakhpur nagar is primarily based on the service industry. People from all over Purvanchal (Eastern U.P) migrate to the city for education, medical and other facilities which are better than those found in rural areas. There are branches of all major nationalized banks as well as of private banks in the city, most of which are found along Bank Road, named as it was the location of Gorakhpurs first bank, the Kayastha Bank, which was opened in 1906. Later on at this place a branch of Imperial Bank of India was opened in 1923. The Imperial Bank of India was converted into State Bank of India by an act of parliament (State Bank of India Act 1955). The main branch of State Bank of India still exists here along with other business process re-engineering units like SARC (Stressed Assets Recovery Centre), CCPC (Centralised Clearing Processing Cell). B R D Medical College, Civil Hospital, L N M Railway Hospital, Hanuman Prasad Poddar Cancer Hospital, Kushth Sewa Ashram, Agrawal are some of the hospitals in the city. The central business district of the city, Golghar, located near the geographical centre includes several major shops, hotels and restaurants, as well as the Rapti Complex, Baldev Plaza, Mangalam Tower and City shopping malls, Mohaddipur, Townhall. The Rapti Complex, built in 1987, is the oldest complex in the area. Here one can find all the of all major brands of apparel, jewellary, shoes, cosmetics and electronics goods. The Buxipur area is the location for one of the biggest book markets in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.


Gorakhpur Culture of Gorakhpur

Terracotta Town Situated at a distance of 9 to 17 km from Gorakhpur city, there are many villages, which are famous for terracotta products. The entire work is done with bare hands and they use natural color, which stays fast for long time. There are more than 1000 varieties of designs of terracotta works crafted by the local craftsmen. The craftsmen belong to ‘Prajapati’ caste and are mainly spread over villages of Aurangabad, Bharwalia, Langadi Gularia, Budhadih, Amawa, Ekla etc. in Bhathat and Padri Bazar, Belwa Raipur, Jungle Ekla No-1, Jungle Ekla No-2 in Chargawan block of Gorakhpur. There are 04 President awardees, 05 people have got regional medal for excellence in craftsmanship in the last three decades for their outstanding and unique contribution in propagating and taking forward the dying art. The various Govt. schemes have been dovetailed locally to provide working sheds, research/training centre and showrooms for exhibition and sale of their products, and the local administration has taking up development works like road connectivity, electrification, construction of drains etc. to attract tourists. It is an idle village tourist destination and one can see people from all parts of the country, Queuing up to collect orders of these unique, original and rare terracotta works.

Religious festivals

Gorakhpur Festival of Gorakhpur
  • Khicadi Mela, Gorakhnath Temple
  • The famous shrine of Guru Gorakshanath, epitomizes the identity of the Gorakhpur city, the city has been named after Guru Gorakshnath. The temple premises spread over about 52 acres of land in the heart of the city, on Gorakhpur Sonauli (Nepal border) national highway. Famous one month long Makar Sankranti fair (Khichadi Mela), starts here from 14 January every year, which is attended by the people from far places.

  • Tarkulha Devi mela

  • Celebrated at tarkulha devi temple, this mela attracts larges no of devotees from Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.

  • Bhudia Mai Mandir Navratri Mela

  • Situated in the kushmi forest, many people make a pilgrimage here during navratris.

  • Kabir Maghar Mahotsav

  • Several programmes, including Kabir seminar, religious conference, Sufi bhajan, Kisan mela and Akhil Bharatiya Kavi Sammelan are held in the Mohatsava, besides various other sports competitions and cultural programmes to commence the death of saint kabir.


    Traditional cuisine includes platters of Galawati and Kakori kababs in Oudh and fish. Wheat, rice, gram, maize, and pulses along with curd, milk, vegetables, ghee and vegetable oils, constitute the items of daily food, rice being the staple food of the people. During khicadi mela khaja is popular sweet among Gorakhpurites.

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