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Global Language Monitor

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High Technology


Type of business
Media Analytics

Paul JJ Payack


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Olympics and World Cup Brand and Ambush Marketing Analyses, annual Top 55 Global Fashion Capitals, annual TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide, Annual Top Words, Phrases, and Names of the Year (for Global English), annual Top Business Buzzwords, Top Political Buzzwords, Top Politically(in)Correct Words



The Global Language Monitor (GLM) is an Austin, Texas-based company that collectively documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis upon the English language. It is particularly known for its Word of the Year, political analysis, college and university rankings, High Tech buzzwords, and media analytics.



Founded in Silicon Valley in 2003 by Paul J.J. Payack, the GLM describes its role as "a media analytics company that documents, analyzes and tracks cultural trends in language the world over, with a particular emphasis upon Global English". GLM's main services include various products based on the Narrative Tracker technologies for global Internet and social media analysis. NarrativeTracker is based on global discourse, providing a real-time, accurate picture about any topic, at any point in time. NarrativeTracker analyzes the Internet, blogosphere, the top 275,000 print and electronic global media, as well as new social media sources as they emerge. In April 2008, GLM moved its headquarters from San Diego to Austin.

GLM announced "Emoji" as its Top Word of 2014 for Global English along with its complete lists of Top Words, Phrases and Names in December 2014.

Earlier in 2015 GLM has released:

  • The Top Words of the First Fifteen Years of the 21st Century (and what they portend).
  • The Top Words of 2115 (One hundred Years Hence)
  • The AD 2076 Map of the Re-federalised United States (including VanCity and Scot's Land).
  • The Top Trending Words of 2015 at Mid-Year
  • Previous Words, Phrases & Names of the Year

    Top Words: No. 1 The Heart ♥ Emoji (for love), No. 2 Hashtag, No. 3 Vape Top Phrases: No. 1 Hands Up, Don’t Shoot; No. 2 Cosmic Inflation, No. 3 Global Warming Top Names: No. 1 Ebola, No. 2 Pope Francis, No. 3 World War I
    Top Words: No. 1 ‘404’, No.2 Fail, No.3 Hashtag Top Phrases: No. 1 Toxic Politics, No. 2 Federal Shutdown, No.3 Global Warming/Climate Change Top Names: No. 1. Pope Francis, No. 2 ObamaCare, No.3 NSA
    Top Words: No. 1 ApocalypseArmageddon, No.2 Deficit, No. 3 Olympiad Top Phrases: No. 1 Gangnam Style, No. 2 Climate Change/Global Warming, No. 3 Fiscal Cliff Top Names: No. 1 Newtown and Malala Yousafzai, No. 3 Xi Jinping
    Top Words: No. 1 Occupy, No.2 Fracking, No.3 Drone Top Phrases: No. 1 Arab Spring, No. 2 Royal Wedding, No.3 Anger and Rage Top Names: No. 1 Steve Jobs, No. 2 Osama bin-laden and Seal Team Six, No.3 Fukushim
    Top Words: No. 1 Occupy, No.2 Fracking, No.3 Drone Top Phrases: No. 1 Anger and Rage, No. 2 Climate Change, No. 3 The Great Recession Top Names: No. 1 Hu Jintao, paramount leader of China, No. 2 iPad, No. 3 Barack Obama
    Top Words: No. 1: Twitter, No. 2: Obama, No. 3: H1N1 Top Phrases: No. 1: King of Pop, No. 2: Obama-mania, No. 3: Climate Change Top Names: No. 1: Obama, No. 2: Michael Jackson, No. 3: Mobama
    Top Words: No. 1: Change, No. 2: Bailout, No. 3: Obama-mania Top Phrases: No. 1: Financial Tsunami, No. 2: Global Warming, No. 3: "Yes, We Can!" Top Names: No. 1: Barack Obama, No. 2: George W. Bush, No. 3: Michael Phelps
    Top Words: No. 1 Hybrid (representing all things green), No. 2: Surge Top Phrase: Climate Change Top Name: Al Gore
    Top Word: Sustainable Top Phrase: Stay the Course Top Name: Darfur
    Top Words: No. 1, Refugee, No. 2: Tsunami, No. 3: Katrina Top Phrase: Outside the Mainstream Top Name: (acts of) God
    Top Word: Incivility (for inCivil War) Top Phrase: Red States/Blue States, No. 2: Rush to War Top Name: Dubya/Rove
    Top Word: Embedded Top Phrase: Shock and Awe, No. 2: Rush to War Top Name: Saddam Hussein, No. 2: Dubya
    Top Word: Misunderestimate Top Phrase: Threat Fatigue Top Name: W (Dubya)
    Top Word: Ground Zero Top Phrase: ‘Lets Roll’ Top Name: The Heros
    Top Word: Chad Top Phrase: Dot.com Top Name: W (Dubya)

    Top Words, Stories, Phrases and Names of the Decade

    The Top Words of the Decade from 2000 to 2009 were headed by Global Warming.

    The Top Words of the Decade from 2000–2009

    Word / Year / Comments

    1. global warming (2000) Rated highly from Day One of the decade
    2. 9/11 (2001) Another inauspicious start to the decade
    3. Obama- (2008 ) The US President’s name as a ‘root’ word or ‘word stem’
    4. bailout (2008) The Bank Bailout was but Act One of the crisis
    5. evacuee/refugee (2005) After Katrina, refugees became evacuees
    6. derivative (2007) Financial instrument or analytical tool that engendered the Meltdown
    7. google (2007) Founders misspelled actual word ‘googol’
    8. surge (2007) The strategy that effectively ended the Iraq War
    9. Chinglish (2005) The Chinese-English Hybrid language growing larger as Chinese influence expands
    10. tsunami (2004) Southeast Asian Tsunami took 250,000 lives
    11. H1N1 (2009) More commonly known as Swine Flu
    12. subprime (2007) Subprime mortgages were another bubble to burst
    13. dot.com (2000) The Dot.com bubble engendered no lifelines, no bailouts
    14. Y2K (2000) The Year 2000: all computers would turn to pumpkins at the strike of midnight
    15. misunderestimate (2002) One of the first and most enduring of Bushisms
    16. chad (2000) Those Florida voter punched card fragments that the presidency would turn upon
    17. twitter (2008) A quarter of a billion references on Google
    18. WMD (2002) Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction
    19. blog (2003) First called ‘web logs’ which contracted into blogs
    20. texting (2004) Sending 140 character text messages over cell phones
    21. slumdog (2008) Child inhabitants of Mumba’s slums
    22. sustainable (2006) The key to ‘Green’ living where natural resources are never depleted
    23. Brokeback (2004) New term for ‘gay’ from the Hollywood film ‘Brokeback Mountain’
    24. quagmire (2004) Would Iraq War end up like Vietnam, another ‘quagmire’?
    25. truthiness (2006) Stephen Colbert’s addition to the language appears to be a keeper

    The Top Stories of the decade from 2000-2009

    Rank/News Story/Comment

    1. Rise of China The biggest story of the decade, outdistancing the No. 2 Internet story by 400%.
    2. Iraq War The buildup, the invasion, the hunt for the WMDs, and the Surge were top in print and electronic media outlets.
    3. 9/11 Terrorist Attacks The 9/11 Terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, DC seemed to set the tone for the new decade.
    4. War on Terror President George W. Bush’s response to 9/11.
    5. Death of Michael Jackson A remarkably high ranking considering that MJ’s death occurred in the final year of the decade.
    6. Election of Obama to US presidency The rallying cries of ‘hope’ and ‘Yes, we can!’ resulting in the historic election of an African-American to the US presidency.
    7. Global Recession of 2008/9 The ongoing world economic restructuring as opposed to the initial ‘economic meltdown’ or ‘financial tsunami’.
    8. Hurricane Katrina New Orleans was devastated when the levies collapsed; scenes of death and destruction shocked millions the world over.
    9. War in Afghanistan Now in its eighth year with an expansion into neighboring Pakistan.
    10. Economic Meltdown/Financial Tsunami The initial shock of witnessing some 25% of the world’s wealth melting away seemingly overnight.
    11. Beijing Olympics The formal launch of China onto the world stage.
    12. South Asian Tsunami The horror of 230,000 dead or missing, washed away in a matter of minutes was seared into the consciousness the global community.
    13. War against the Taliban Lands controlled by the Taliban served as a safe haven from which al Qaeda would launch its terrorist attacks.
    14. Death of Pope John Paul II The largest funeral in recent memory with some 2,000,000 pilgrims in attendance.
    15. Osama bin-Laden eludes capture Hesitation to attack Tora Bora in 2002 has led to the continuing manhunt.

    The Top Phrases of the Decade from 2000–2009


    1. climate change (2000) Green words in every form dominant the decade
    2. Financial Tsunami (2008) One quarter of the world’s wealth vanishes seemingly overnight
    3. ground zero (2001) Site of 9/11terrorist attack in New York City
    4. War on Terror (2001) Bush administration’s response to 9/11
    5. Weapons of Mass Destruction (2003) Bush’s WMDs never found in Iraq or the Syrian desert
    6. swine flu (2008) H1N1, please, so as not to offend the pork industry or religious sensitivities!
    7. "Let’s Roll!" (2001) Todd Beamer’s last words before Flight 93 crashed into the PA countryside
    8. Red State/Blue State (2004) Republican or Democratic control of states
    9. carbon footprint (2007) How much CO² does an activity produce?
    10. shock-and-awe (2003) Initial strategy of Iraq War
    11. Ponzi scheme (2009) Madoff’s strategy reaped billions & heartache
    12. Category 4 (2005) Force of Hurricane Katrina hitting New Orleans’ seawalls and levies
    13. King of Pop (2000) Elvis was the King, MJ the King (of Pop)
    14. "Stay the course" (2004) Dubya’s oft-stated guidance for Iraq War
    15. "Yes, we can!" (2008) Obama’s winning campaign slogan
    16. "Jai Ho!" (2008) Shout of joy from ‘Slumdog Millionaire’
    17. "Out of the Mainstream" (2003) Complaint about any opposition’s political platform
    18. Cloud computing (2007) Using the Internet as a large computational device
    19. threat fatigue (2004) One too many terrorist threat alerts
    20. same-sex marriage (2003) Marriage of gay couples

    Top 56 Global Fashion Capital Annual Rankings

    An annual ranking of the leading fashion capitals is produced by Global Language Monitor, a US-based company that tracks trends through language use worldwide. The Top Global Fashion Capitals of 2015, are listed below.

    The Watch List for 2016 includes: Abidjan, Accra, Auckland, Beirut, Jakarta, Kuala Lampur, and Lagos. Top Fashion Capitals by Region

    Europe: Paris, London, Rome, Milano, Barcelona, Berlin, Madrid, Florence, Monaco, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Frankfurt.

    Spain: Barcelona, Madrid

    India: Mumbai, New Delhi

    Australia: Sydney, Melbourne

    East Asia: Tokyo, Singapore, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Seoul

    RSA: Cape Town, Johannesburg

    Middle Europe: Moscow, Prague, Vienna, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Kraków

    Canada: Toronto, Montreal,and Vancouver,

    Mideast: Dubai, Abu Dhabi

    Latin America: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Santiago and Mexico City

    Regional US: New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Dallas, Boston, Las Vegas, Chicago, Houston, Atlanta, San Francisco, Austin and Washington, DC

    Methodology: For this analysis, the Global Language Monitor used its proprietary Brand Affiliation Index (BAI), the same technology used to measure global brand equity for the Olympics, World Cup, the Fortune 500, and others. This exclusive, GLM longitudinal-study encompasses the prior three years to better assess short-term velocity and longer-term momentum. The study is a Big Data textual analysis based on billions of webpages, millions of blogs, the top 375,000 global print and electronic media, and new social media formats as they appear. This is the eleventh edition of the survey, which was first made public in 2007.

    High tech terms

    On March 29, 2013 announced The Most Confusing High Tech Buzzwords of the Second Decade of the 21st century, thus far (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013) with commentary follow:

    2013 Rank, Buzzword, Last Year’s rank

    1. Big Data (1) — Soon Human Knowledge will be doubling every second. ’Big’ does not begin to describe what’s coming at us.
    2. Dark Data (New)- Might not have noticed it because … it is ‘Dark Data’ ‘Big Data’ has begun to spin off its own superlatives.
    3. The Cloud (2) — All that data has got to go somewhere. Hint: it’s neither your phone nor your tablet.
    4. Yottabytes (New) – Showing up on lots of technologists’ radar lately: a quadrillion gigabytes.
    5. The Next Big Thing (3) — A cliché rendered ever more meaningless but still on everyone’s tongue.
    6. Heisenbug (New) – A bug that disappears when you try to detect it, finally making the list after a steady ascent over the last decade.
    7. 3-D Printer (New) – Watch this space. This technology has been used in CAD design for years and science fiction for decades — but now they are impinging upon everyday life.
    8. Phablet (New) – The Next Big Thing? The odds are against it since consumer goods tend to evolve into single-purpose appliances.
    9. REST (New) – Representational State transfer is slowly climbing its way up the list.
    10. Web X.0 (5) — Formerly Web 2.0, 3.0, etc.

    The study was released in conjunction with Austin's South by Southwest Interactive festival.

    On March 17, 2010, the Global Language Monitor presented the Most Confusing High Tech Buzzwords of the first decade of the 21st century (2000–2009).

    1. HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol is used for HTML (HyperText Markup Language) files.
    2. Flash — As in Flash Memory. "Flash’ is easier to say than " I brought the report on my EEPROM chip with a thin oxide layer separating a floating gate and control gate utilizing Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling".
    3. God Particle – The Higgs boson, thought to account for mass. The God Particle has eluded discovery since its existence was first postulated some thirty years ago.
    4. Cloud computing – Distributing or accessing programs and services across the Internet. (The Internet is represented as a cloud.)
    5. Plasma (as in plasma TV) — Refers to a kind of television screen technology that uses matrix of gas plasma cells, which are charged by differing electrical voltages to create an image.
    6. IPOD – Apple maintains that the idea of the iPod was from the film 2001: A Space Odyssey.
    7. Megapixel – One million pixels or picture elements.
    8. Nano – Widely used to describe anything small as in nanotechnology. Like the word ‘mini’ which originally referred to the red hues in Italian miniature paintings, the word nano- is ultimately derived from the ancient Greek word for ‘dwarf’.
    9. Resonate – Not the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude, but the ability to relate to (or resonate with) a customer’s desires.
    10. Virtualization – Around since the late ‘70s, virtualization now applies to everything from infrastructures to I/O.

    On November 19, 2008 Global Language Monitor announced the most confusing yet frequently cited high tech buzzwords of 2008 to be cloud computing, green washing, and buzzword compliant followed by resonate, de-duping, and virtualization. Rounding out the Top Ten were Web 2.0, versioning, word clouds, and petaflop. The most confusing Acronym for 2008 was SaaS (software as a service).

    On 14 October 2007 GLM released a list of the most confusing high tech terms and buzzwords. The words included: iPod, flash, cookie, nano and kernel, followed by megahertz, cell (as in cell phone), plasma, de-duplication and Blu-Ray. Other terms being tracked included terabyte, memory, core, and head crash. The most confusing acronym was found to be SOA, for service-oriented architecture, an acronym which IBM published a book about.

    The studies were released each year on the anniversary of the cookie, the invention that made the World Wide Web practical for widespread surfing, communication, and e-commerce.

    Counting English words

    GLM announced the 1,000,000th English word on June 10, 2009. This controversial exercise was widely covered in the global media. The count itself was widely criticized by a number of prominent members of the linguistic community, including Geoffrey Nunberg, and Jesse Sheidlower and Benjamin Zimmer. on the grounds that since there is no generally accepted definition of a word, there can never be a definitive count.

    The finalists, which met the criteria of a minimum of 25,000 citations with the necessary breadth of geographic distribution and depth of citations, were:

    1. Web 2.0. 2. Jai Ho! 3. N00b. 4. Slumdog. 5. Cloud computing. 6. Carbon Neutral. 7. Slow Food. 8. Octomom. 9. Greenwashing. 10. Sexting. 11. Shovel ready. 12. Defriend. 13. Chengguan. 14. Recessionista. 15. Zombie Banks.

    Critics noted that the target date had been changed a number of times from late in 2006 to early in 2009. It was also criticized on grounds that a count is impossible because "word" is not a scientifically valid concept. Google addressed this situation by counting the words in the 15 million scanned texts in their corpus. Global Language Monitor states the general criteria for inclusion on its site, maintaining that it is simply updating the established criteria for printed dictionaries beginning with the works of Samuel Johnson and Noah Webster.

    The New York Times quoted Paul JJ Payack as saying that the PQI is "an algorithm that tracks words and phrases in the media and on the Internet in relation to frequency, context and appearance in global media. It is a weighted index that takes into account year-to-year increases and acceleration in the last several months". In general terms, GLM describes its Predictive Quantities Indicator (PQI), used to run its analytics on global language trends and, as a weighted index, factoring in long-term trends, short-term changes, momentum and velocity, using frequency data on words and phrases in the global print and electronic media, on the Internet, and throughout the blogosphere, as well as in proprietary databases (Factiva, Lexis-Nexis, etc.). It can also create "signals" that can be used in a variety of applications.

    Obama an English language word

    On 20 February 2008 GLM announced that the latest word to enter the English language was "obama", derived from Barack Obama, in its many variations. GLM described Obama- as a "root" for words including obamanomics, obamican, obamamentum, obamacize, obamarama, obamaNation, Obamafy, obamamania and obamacam. GLM announced it to be an accepted word, once it met the group's published criteria: a minimum of 25,000 citations in the global media, as well as achieving the necessary 'breadth' and 'depth' of citations.

    Top US Colleges and University Rankings

    The Global Language Monitor publishes other lists relating to the English language including: the TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide rankings of the top 425 U.S. colleges and universities according to their internet brand equity.

    Top Universities (January 2016): Rank/University/Previous Ranking

    Top Universities Last

    1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1
    2. University of California at Los Angeles 6
    3. University of California, Berkeley 3
    4. University of California, Davis 7
    5. University of California, San Diego 12
    6. University of Chicago 4
    7. University of Texas, Austin 5
    8. Harvard University 2
    9. University of Washington 13
    10. University of Southern California 27
    11. Stanford University 8
    12. University of Wisconsin, Madison 15
    13. Yale University 21
    14. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 16
    15. University of California, Irvine 37
    16. University of Virginia 19
    17. University of California, Santa Barbara 36
    18. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 20
    19. University of Minnesota 22
    20. Ohio State University, Columbus 28
    21. Columbia University 14
    22. Princeton University 17
    23. University of Pennsylvania 11
    24. Duke University 61
    25. University of California, Santa Cruz 84
    26. New York University 9
    27. Emory University 33
    28. Michigan State University 24
    29. Cornell University 23
    30. Johns Hopkins University 30
    31. Northwestern University 10
    32. University of Florida 67
    33. Florida State 48
    34. University of Missouri, Columbia 51
    35. Virginia Tech 65
    36. University of Arizona 77
    37. University of Iowa 44
    38. Georgia Institute of Technology 26
    39. Washington University in St. Louis 25
    40. Indiana University, Bloomington 32
    41. University of Miami 46
    42. Washington State University 79
    43. University of Pittsburgh 45
    44. University of San Diego 149
    45. University of Oregon 49
    46. American University 58
    47. University of Phoenix 98
    48. Purdue University 31
    49. Iowa State University 47
    50. University of Georgia 43
    51. University of Tennessee 90

    Top 50 US Colleges by TrendTopper MediaBuzz 2016

    Rank/College/Previous Ranking

    1. Wesleyan University 54
    2. School of the Art Institute of Chicago 27
    3. College of the Holy Cross 58
    4. Williams College 6
    5. University of Richmond 2
    6. United States Military Academy 1
    7. Smith College 47
    8. United States Naval Academy 20
    9. Middlebury College 7
    10. Pratt Institute 10
    11. Wellesley College 4
    12. University of the Arts, PA 69
    13. Berklee College of Music 72
    14. Babson College 9
    15. Oberlin College 19
    16. Rhode Island School of Design 22
    17. Bucknell University 11
    18. Vassar College 8
    19. Barnard College 21
    20. Colgate University 14
    21. Bowdoin College 15
    22. Pomona College 3
    23. Davidson College 25
    24. Bennington College 96
    25. Lafayette College 13
    26. Swarthmore College 16
    27. United States Air Force Academy 43
    28. Colby College 46
    29. Mount Holyoke College 44
    30. Bard College 18
    31. Amherst College 4
    32. Fashion Institute of Technology 64
    33. Morehouse College 35
    34. Carleton College 36
    35. Occidental College 17
    36. Furman University 66
    37. Bryn Mawr College 31
    38. The Juilliard School 30
    39. Reed College 24
    40. Bates College 48
    41. Washington and Lee University 38
    42. Kenyon College 40
    43. Drew University 45
    44. Dickinson College 23
    45. Skidmore College 39
    46. Colorado College 89
    47. Trinity College, CT 33
    48. DePauw University 49
    49. Gettysburg College 32
    50. Haverford College 50

    Top US Colleges by Category

  • The 222 Top US Universities 1. MIT, 2. UCLA, 3. Berkeley
  • The 199 Top US Colleges 1. Wesleyan (CT), 2. SAIC, 3. Holy Cross
  • The Top US Private Universities 1. Chicago, 2. Harvard, 3. Stanford
  • The Top US Public Universities 1. UCLA, 2. Berkeley, 3. UC Davis
  • The Top US Private Colleges 1. Wesleyan (CT), 2. SAIC, 3. Holy Cross
  • The Top US Public Colleges 1. West Point, 2. Annapolis, 3. Air Force
  • The Top Engineering Universities 1. MIT, 2. Virginia Tech, 3. Georgia Tech
  • The Top Engineering Collages 1. Harvey Mudd, 2. MSOE, 3. SD School of Mines
  • The Top Catholic Universities 1. U San Diego, 2. Boston College, 3. Notre Dame.
  • The Top Catholic Colleges 1. Holy Cross, 2. Siena College, 3. Willamette
  • Top Denomination-related Colleges 1. St Olaf, 2. High Point, 3. Muhlenberg
  • Top Military and Service Academies 1. West Point, 2. Annapolis, 3. Air Force
  • Top Art, Design, and Music Schools 1. School of the Art Institute AIC, 2. Pratt Institute, 3. School of the Arts, PA
  • Top Women’s Colleges 1. Smith, 2. Wellesley, 3. Barnard
  • Top Historically Black Colleges and Universities 1. Morehouse, 2. Spelman, 3.Rhodes
  • and 15 Top All-Time Bushisms, and many others.


    Global Language Monitor Wikipedia

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