The 3600 LY7 (and derivative LP1) are members of General Motors' new High Feature (or HFV6) engine family of modern DOHC V6s. This new family of engines was introduced in 1997 with the Cadillac CTS. Holden sells the HFV6 under the name Alloytec. The High Feature moniker on the Holden produced engine is reserved for the twin cam phasing high output version. The block was designed to be expandable from 2.8 L to 4.0 L.
It is a 60° 24-valve design with aluminum block and heads and Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection. Most versions feature continuously variable cam phasing on both intake and exhaust valves and electronic throttle control. Other features include piston oil-jet capability, forged and fillet rolled crankshaft, sinter forged connecting rods, a variable intake manifold, twin knock control sensors and coil-on-plug ignition. It was developed by the same international team responsible for the Ecotec, including the Opel engineers responsible for the 54° V6, with involvement with design and development engineering from Ricardo plc.
High Feature V6 engines are produced at the following four manufacturing locations: Fishermans Bend, Port Melbourne, Australia; St. Catharines, Canada; Flint Engine South in Flint, Michigan, United States; and Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, Mexico. The assembly lines for the St. Catharines and Flint facilities were manufactured by Hirata Corporation at their powertrain facility in Kumamoto, Japan. Most of the designs of this motor happened in Flint. They were first produced for the Cadillac range.
The HFV6 was first designed, tested and produced in a joint program by Cadillac and Holden. A majority of designs into the new alloy construction, transmission pairing and first use in production were all undertaken in Detroit (and manufactured in St. Catharines). Holden had the job of developing smaller engines (Holden 3.2, LP1 and LP9 Turbo) as well as their own Holden 3.6 HFV6 (called the Alloytec V6) for local models.
Cadillac and Holden both tested variations of these engines in US and Australia. North America and Australia remain the only two places that manufacture the HFV6.
A 2.8 L (2792 cc) LP1 variant was introduced in the 2005 Cadillac CTS. It has a 89.0 mm (3.50 in) bore, a 74.8 mm (2.94 in) stroke, and a 10.0:1 compression ratio. The LP1 was built in Saint Catharines, Ontario.
This engine is also known as a A28NET, Z28NET or B284.
The LP9 is a 2.8 L turbocharged version used for the Saab 9-3 and other GM vehicles. It has the same bore and stroke as the naturally aspirated LP1, however the compression ratio is reduced to 9.5:1. The engine is manufactured at Holden's Fishermans Bend engine factory in Port Melbourne, Australia, while GM Powertrain Sweden (formerly Saab Automobile Powertrain) is responsible for turbocharging the engine. Global versions of this engine use the same horsepower rating for both metric and imperial markets – mechanical horsepower – while the Europe-only versions are rated in metric horsepower.
The LAU is GM's new code for the LP9 Turbo engine, its usage starting with the 2010 Cadillac SRX. In 2011, production of the Cadillac SRX with the LAU engine ceased, but the engine will still be used in the Saab 9-4X from 2011 onwards. In 2012, production of the 9-4X ceased.
The LF1 is a 3.0-liter version equipped with spark ignition direct injection (SIDI).
The LFW is a flexible fuel version of the LF1, capable of running on E85, gasoline, or any mixture of the two. Output is identical to the LF1.
Holden has built its own 3.2 L version of the High Feature engine in Australia. Branded with the Alloytec name like the 3.6 litre version, this version produces 227 hp (169 kW) at 6600 rpm and 297 N·m (219 lb·ft) at 3200 rpm. Its fuel economy is 4–6 km/liter in city, and 7–9 km/liter on highway.. Holden also produced the 3.2 L engines that were used by Alfa Romeo as the basis of its JTS V6 engine.
Applications:2006-2010 Daewoo Winstorm / Chevrolet Captiva / Holden Captiva
2006-2010 Opel Antara / Daewoo Winstorm MaXX / Holden Captiva MaXX
The 3.6 L (3,564 cc (217.5 cu in)) LY7 version was introduced in the 2004 Cadillac CTS sedan. It has a 10.2:1 compression ratio, a bore of 94.0 mm (3.70 in) and a stroke of 85.6 mm (3.37 in). Lower powered versions only have variable cam phasing on the inlet cam (LEO). Selected models also include variable exhaust. The engine weighs 370 lb (170 kg) as installed.
This engine is produced in several locations: St. Catharines (Ontario), Flint Engine South (Michigan), Melbourne (Australia), Ramos Arizpe (Mexico), and Sagara (Japan) by Suzuki.
Suzuki's engine designation is N36A.
A dual fuel 235 hp (175 kW) version able to run on petrol and autogas (LPG) has also been produced by Holden in Australia.
The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LLT is a direct injected version based on the earlier LY7 engine. It was first unveiled in May 2006, and the DI version was claimed to have 15 percent greater power, 8 percent greater torque, and 3 percent better fuel economy than its port-injected counterpart. The LLT engine has a compression ratio of 11.3:1, and has been certified by the SAE to produce 302 horsepower (225 kW) at 6300 rpm and 272 lb·ft (369 N·m) of torque at 5200 rpm on regular unleaded (87 octane) gasoline. This engine debuted on the 2008 Cadillac STS and CTS. GM used a LLT in all 2009 Lambda-derived crossover SUVs to allow class-leading fuel economy in light of the new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the Lambdas, LLT engine produces 288 horsepower (215 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) of torque.
The LFX is an enhanced version of the LLT engine. Introduced in the MY2012 Chevrolet Camaro LS, it is 20.5 pounds (9.3 kg) lighter than the LLT, due to a redesigned cylinder head and integrated exhaust manifold, and composite intake manifold. Other components like the fuel injectors, intake valves, and fuel pump have also been updated. Power and torque are up slightly from the LLT. The compression ratio is 11.5:1. The LFX also features E85 flex-fuel capability.
The 3.6 litre (3564 cc) LCS is derived from the direct-injected LLT for use in hybrids, using the two-mode system. Differences from the LLT include a slightly lower compression ratio, 11.3:1, and lower power and torque peaks. It was to debut in the 2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid, where it would make 262 hp (195 kW) at 6100 rpm and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm. Fuel economy 6–8 km/liter in city, 9–11 km/liter on highway Applications:2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid [product canceled]
The 3.6 L twin-turbocharged version for the 2014 Cadillac CTS and 2014 Cadillac XTS has been announced at the 2013 NYAS.
The engine is rated at 420 hp (313 kW) of power @ 5750 rpm and 430 lb·ft (583 N·m) of torque @ 3500-4500 rpm (with 90% of torque being available at 2500-5500 rpm) and helps the CTS achieve 0-60 mph time of 4.6 seconds with an 8-speed automatic transmission.
In essence, the twin-turbo 3.6L V6 is the force-inducted variant of the popular LFX V6 currently found in the Cadillac ATS, XTS, and SRX, among many other GM models, with several important upgrades, including:All-new cylinder block casting
All-new cylinder head castings
Strengthened connecting rods
Forged steel crankshaft
Continuously variable valve timing
Large 38.3 mm intake valves and 30.6 mm sodium-filled exhaust valves
Machined, domed aluminum pistons with top steel ring carrier for greater strength
10.2:1 compression ratio
Patented, integrated charge air cooler system with low-volume air ducts
Two turbochargers produce more than 12 pounds of boost (80 kPa)
Vacuum-actuated wastegates with electronic control valves
All-new direct injection fuel system
Tuned air inlet and outlet resonators, aluminum cam covers and other features that contribute to exceptional quietness and smoothness
The LF4 is a higher-performance variant of the LF3 for use in the Cadillac ATS-V. Changes to the LF3 include:Turbochargers with low-inertia titanium-aluminide turbines and vacuum-actuated wastegates for more responsive torque production
Compressors matched for peak efficiency at peak power levels, for optimal track performance
Patent-pending low-volume charge-cooling system that optimizes packaging efficiency and maximizes boost pressure
Lightweight titanium connecting rods that reduce inertia of the rotating assembly, complementing the quick-spooling turbochargers
Peak boost increased to 18 PSI (from 12 PSI)
Higher-flow fuel injectors
Oil pan baffling for better oil flow at high cornering speeds
The LFR is a bi-fuel variant of the LFX, although multi-point fuel injection is used for both the gasoline and CNG instead of direct-injection.
Starting with 2016 Cadillac models a new generation of High Feature V6s were developed. These new engines have redesigned block architectures with bore centers increased from 103 mm (4.055 in) on prior HFV6 engines to 106 mm (4.173 in) and a redesigned cooling system to target the hottest areas while also facilitating faster warm-up. They also incorporate engine start-stop technology, cylinder-deactivation, 2-stage oil pumps, and updated variable valve timing featuring intermediate park technology for late-intake valve closure. Both engines will debut in the 2016 Cadillac CT6.
Bore and stroke of 86 mm (3.386 in) and 85.8 mm (3.378 in) are used, along with a 9.8:1 compression ratio and twin turbos with titanium-aluminide turbine wheels. Maximum engine speed is 6500 RPM. Premium unleaded fuel is required.
Along with the increased bore spacing, the new 3.6 L V6 has larger bores than before, growing from 94 mm (3.701 in) to 95 mm (3.740 in) with the same 85.8 mm (3.378 in) stroke as the 3.0L LGW, for a displacement of 3649 cc. Intake and exhaust valves are also increased in size along with other changes to the cylinder head. Compression ratio is 11.5:1 and maximum engine speed is 7200 RPM.
The LGZ is a variant of the LGX designed for pickup truck use.
On March 21, 2007 AutoWeek reported that GM was planning to develop a 60-degree V12 based on this engine family to power the top version of Cadillac's upcoming flagship sedan. This Cadillac would essentially have had two 3.6 L High Feature V6s attached crankshaft-to-crankshaft and would have featured high-end technologies including direct injection and cylinder deactivation. If so, the twin-engine would have displaced 7.2 liters, and produced approximately 600 hp (447 kW) and 540 lb·ft (732 N·m) of torque. Development of the engine was reportedly being conducted in Australia by Holden.
In August, 2008, GM announced that development of the V12 had been cancelled.