Girish Mahajan (Editor)


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Scientific name


Higher classification
Celtis Celtis sinensis

Lower classifications
Celtis occidentalis, Celtis australis, Celtis sinensis, Celtis laevigata, Celtis ehrenbergiana

Plant id european nettle tree celtis australis

Celtis, commonly known as hackberries or nettle trees, is a genus of about 60–70 species of deciduous trees widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and southern and central North America, south to central Africa, and northern and central South America. The genus is present in the fossil record at least since the Miocene of Europe, and Paleocene of North America and eastern Asia.


Celtis Celtis sinensis

Previously included either in the elm family (Ulmaceae) or a separate family, Celtidaceae, the APG III system places Celtis in an expanded hemp family (Cannabaceae). The generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder (23–79) to the unrelated Ziziphus lotus.

Celtis Weed trees Celtis City of Sydney

Plant id asian hackberry celtis yunnanensis


Celtis httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Celtis species are generally medium-sized trees, reaching 10–25 m (35–80 ft) tall, rarely up to 40 m (130 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, simple, 3–15 cm (1 14–6 in) long, ovate-acuminate, and evenly serrated margins. Diagnostically, Celtis can be very similar to trees in Rosaceae and other rose motif families.

Celtis Celtis Wikipedia

Small monoecious flowers appear in early spring while the leaves are still developing. Male flowers are longer and fuzzy. Female flowers are greenish and more rounded.

Celtis Celtis occidentalis L Checklist View

The fruit is a small drupe 6–10 mm (1438 in) in diameter, edible in many species, with a dryish but sweet, sugary consistency, reminiscent of a date

Selected species

Celtis Celtis africana Wikipedia

  • Celtis africana Burm.f. – white stinkwood (Afrotropical region)
  • Celtis australis L. – European hackberry, European nettle tree or lote tree
  • Celtis balansae Planch. (New Caledonia (Australia))
  • Celtis biondii Pamp.
  • Celtis brasiliensis Planch.
  • Celtis bungeana L. – Bunge's hackberry
  • Celtis caucasica L. – Caucasian hackberry
  • Celtis conferta Planch. – cotton-wood
  • Celtis conferta subsp. conferta – New Caledonia
  • Celtis conferta subsp. amblyphyllaLord Howe Island
  • Celtis durandii Engl.
      [ syn. C. gomphophylla Bak. ]
  • Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. – spiny hackberry, granjeno (Spanish) (southern US, Mexico, Greater Antilles, northern South America)
  • Celtis hypoleuca Planch. (New Caledonia (Australia))
  • Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. – iguana hackberry (Florida (US), Mexico, Caribbean, Central & South America)
  • Celtis integrifolia L. – African hackberry
  • Celtis jessoensis Koidz. – Japanese hackberry (Japan & Korea)
  • Celtis koraiensis L. – Korean hackberry
  • Celtis labilis L. – Hubei hackberry
  • Celtis laevigata Willd. – southern or sugar hackberry (southern US / Texas), sugarberry (eastern USA, northeastern Mexico)
  • Celtis lindheimeri Engelm. ex K.Koch – Lindheimer's hackberry (Texas (US), Coahuila (Mexico))
  • Celtis loxensis C.C.Berg
  • Celtis luzonica Warb. (Philippines)
  • Celtis mildbraedii Engl.
  • Celtis occidentalis L. – common or northern hackberry, false elm (eastern North America)
  • Celtis pallida Torr. – desert or shiny hackberry (southwestern US / Texas, northern Mexico)
  • Celtis paniculata (Endl.) Planch. – whitewood (eastern Malesia, eastern Australia, Micronesia, western Polynesia)
  • Celtis philippensis Planch.
  • Celtis planchoniana K.I.Chr. (eastern Europe & western Asia)
  • Celtis reticulata Torr. – netleaf hackberry (western North America)
  • Celtis schippii Standl.
  • Celtis sinensis Pers. – Chinese or Japanese hackberry, Chinese nettle tree (China & Japan)
    [syn. C. japonica Planch.; C. sinensis var. japonica (Planch.) Nakai; C. tetrandra ssp. sinensis (Roxb.) Y.C.Tang]
  • Celtis tala Gillet ex Planch. – tala (South America)
  • Celtis tenuifolia Nutt. – dwarf hackberry (e North America)
  • Celtis tetranda Roxb.
  • Celtis timorensis Span. – kayu busok
  • Celtis tournefortii L. – Oriental hackberry
  • Celtis triflora (Klotzsch) Ruiz ex Miq.
  • Celtis trinervia Lam. – almex
  • additional list source

    Formerly placed here

    Celtis Celtis occidentalis Fact Sheet

  • Trema cannabina Lour. (as C. amboinensis Willd.)
  • Trema lamarckiana (Schult.) Blume (as C. lamarckiana Schult.)
  • Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (as C. guineensis Schumach. or C. orientalis L.)
  • Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) H.Hara (as C. aspera Brongn. or C. tomentosa Roxb.)
  • Uses and ecology

    Several species are grown as ornamental trees, valued for their drought tolerance. They are a regular feature of arboreta and botanical gardens, particularly in North America. Chinese hackberry (C. sinensis) is suited for bonsai culture, while a magnificent specimen in Daegu-myeon is one of the natural monuments of South Korea. Some, including common hackberry (C. occidentalis) and C. brasiliensis, are honey plants and pollen source for honeybees of lesser importance. Hackberry wood is sometimes used in cabinetry and woodworking.

    The berries are often eaten locally. The Korean tea gamro cha (감로차, 甘露茶) contains C. sinensis leaves.


    Celtis species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera. These include mainly brush-footed butterflies, most importantly the distinct genus Libythea (beak butterflies) and some Apaturinae (emperor butterflies):

  • Acytolepis puspa (common hedge blue) – recorded on Chinese hackberry (C. sinensis)
  • Automeris io (Io moth) – recorded on southern hackberry (C. laevigata)
  • Asterocampa celtis (hackberry butterfly, hackberry emperor)
  • A putative new taxon of the two-barred flasher (Astraptes fulgerator) cryptic species complex, provisionally called "CELT," has hitherto only been found on C. iguanaea.
  • Libythea celtis (European beak)
  • Libythea labdaca (African beak)
  • Libythea lepita (common beak)
  • Libythea myrrha (club beak) – recorded on C. tetranda
  • Nymphalis xanthomelas (scarce tortoiseshell) – recorded on European hackberry (C. australis)
  • Sasakia charonda (great purple emperor) – recorded on Japanese hackberry (C. jessoensis) and pseudo-hackberry (C. japonica)
  • Pathogens

    The plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungus Perenniporia celtis was first described from a Celtis host plant. Some species of Celtis are threatened by habitat destruction.


    Celtis Wikipedia

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