Rahul Sharma (Editor)


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Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones found in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo); other amphibians; and some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine.

The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups:

  • bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin)
  • tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin)
  • Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:

  • Bufo alvarius
  • Bufo americanus
  • Bufo arenarum
  • Bufo asper
  • Bufo blombergi
  • Bufo boreas
  • Bufo bufo
  • Bufo bufo gargarizans
  • Bufo Gutturalis
  • Bufo formosus
  • Bufo fowleri
  • Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus)
  • Bufo melanostictus
  • Bufo peltocephalus
  • Bufo quercicus
  • Bufo regularis
  • Bufo valliceps
  • Bufo viridis
  • Bufo vulgaris
  • Extraction

    Extract from the skin of certain Asian toads, such as Bufo bufo gargarizans, is often found in certain Chinese folk remedies.


    Bufotoxin Wikipedia