Brzeziny (urban gmina)
| Brzeziny County|
Sunday 4:38 AM
| ELW (do 2002 r.); EBR (od 2002 r.)|
6°C, Wind SE at 13 km/h, 75% Humidity
Brzeziny [bʐɛˈʑinɨ] is a town in Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, about 20 km east of Łódź. It is the capital of Brzeziny County. Population is 12,417 (2004).
The first settlement on the site of the present town of Brzeziny was during the 13th Century. The first documentary evidence of the town charter dates from 1332. The town played an important role in the development of trade between Russia and the Polish town of Thorn from the 15th to 17th centuries. Of particular economic importance was craft and tailoring.
In 1793, following the Second Partition of Poland, the town and region was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia as South Prussia. In July 1807, following the Treaty of Tilsit, the town was transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw and after June 1815, became part of the Russian Congress Poland to 1916.
During World War I Austrian and German armies were very active in the region. The Prussian General Karl Litzmann won an important battle here against the Russian army and earned the nickname "the lion of Brzeziny". From November 1916, with Poland mostly occupied by Austrian and German arms, the autonomous Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne) governed the area until the declaration of the Second Polish Republic in 1918.
During the World War II the entire region was part of the notorious Reichsgau Wartheland governed by SS Obergruppenfuhrer Arthur Greiser. The town was renamed Löwenstadt to honour Karl Litzmann and a small ghetto was established in 1940 for local Jews who were all murdered later.
On 18 January 1945 the Red Army reached Brzeziny.
Brzeziny is twinned with: Saint-Alban, Haute-Garonne, France, since 2010
Salgareda, Italy, since 2010
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (1503-1572), Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy."
Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin (ca. 1525-1591), Socinian writer and theologian
Adam Burski or Bursius (ca. 1560–1611), Polish philosopher
Abraham Icek Tuschinski (1886-1942), businessman
Georg Wannagat (1916-2006), jurist
Zbigniew Zamachowski (1961-), Polish actor