Lebda attended Buffalo Grove High School in Buffalo Grove, Illinois for two years. In addition to hockey, he also played golf and volleyball. He then relocated to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he was a participant on the USA National Under-18 Team. Lebda graduated from Pioneer High School.
Lebda played college hockey at the University of Notre Dame. He was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Detroit Red Wings in 2004, and was assigned to the Grand Rapids Griffins, the Wings' minor league affiliate in the American Hockey League. Lebda was unable to suit up for a NHL game until the 2005–06 NHL season due to the NHL lockout. He became the first Red Wing since Greg Johnson in 1993 to score his first NHL goal on opening night. He played in 46 games that regular season and all of Detroit's six opening round playoff games.
He played in 76 games during the 2006–07 NHL season to go with 12 games that playoff year. He set a career high in points with 18, and participated in the only fight of his career when he squared off against Mikael Holmqvist.
In the 2007–08 NHL season, Lebda suited up for 78 games, as well as 19 playoff games as the Red Wings won the 2008 Stanley Cup.
Due to sub-par play to start the 2008–09 NHL season, Lebda found himself a healthy scratch for three straight games before returning to the lineup.
During his career with the Red Wings, Lebda was often paired with Chris Chelios, a fellow Chicago suburban native who is 20 years his elder. While growing up in suburban Chicago, Lebda considered Chelios an idol, and modeled his game after his.
On July 7, 2010, Lebda signed a two-year contract with the Toronto Maple Leafs. However, he struggled during his time in Toronto, playing only 41 games and posting a career-worst -14. His spell as a Leaf was most notable for the fact that, in a game against the Atlanta Thrashers which the Leafs won 9-3, Lebda somehow finished the game -3. His one and only goal came against the Montreal Canadiens a month and a half later.
Lebda and Robert Slaney were traded to the Nashville Predators for Cody Franson and Matthew Lombardi on July 3, 2011.
Following the 2010–11 NHL season Lebda became a free agent, and on November 7, 2011, the Springfield Falcons of the American Hockey League signed Lebda to a professional tryout agreement. With NHL affiliate, the Columbus Blue Jackets, suffering injuries on the defense he was subsequently signed to a one-year deal for the remainder of the season with the Jackets on January 19, 2012.
On February 5, 2013, Lebda signed a professional try-out contract with the Binghamton Senators of the American Hockey League.
Lebda made his international debut for United States at the 2002 World Junior Championships, where he recorded two goals in seven games.