The Welsh name, Aberhonddu, means "mouth of the Honddu". It is derived from the River Honddu, which meets the River Usk near the town centre, a short distance away from the River Tarell which enters the Usk a few hundred metres upstream. After the Dark Ages the original Welsh name of the kingdom in whose territory Brecon stands was (in modern orthography) "Brycheiniog", which was later anglicised to Brecknock or Brecon, and probably derives from Brychan, the eponymous founder of the kingdom.
Before the building of the bridge over the Usk, Brecon was one of the few places where the river could be forded. In Roman Britain Y Gaer, Brecon (Cicucium) was established as a Roman cavalry base for the conquest of Roman Wales and Brecon was first established as a military base.
The confluence of the Honddu and the River Usk made for a valuable defensive position for the Norman castle which overlooks the town, built by Bernard de Neufmarche in the late 11th century. Gerald of Wales came and made some speeches in 1188 to recruit men to go to the Crusades.
Brecon's town walls were constructed by Humphrey de Bohun after 1240. The walls were built of cobble, with four gatehouses and was protected by ten semi-circular bastions. In 1400 the Welsh prince Owain Glyndŵr rose in rebellion against English rule, and in response in 1404 100 marks was spent by the royal government improving the fortifications to protect Brecon in the event of a Welsh attack. Brecon's walls were largely destroyed during the English Civil War. Today only fragments survive, including some earthworks and parts of one of the gatehouses; these are protected as scheduled monuments.
In Shakespeare’s play King Richard III, the Duke of Buckingham is suspected of supporting the Welsh pretender Richmond (the future Henry VII), and declares:
O, let me think on Hastings and be gone
To Brecknock, while my fearful head is on!
About 250 m (270 yd) north of the castle stands Brecon Cathedral, a fairly modest building compared to many cathedrals. The role of cathedral is a fairly recent one, and was bestowed upon the church in 1923 with the formation of the Diocese of Swansea and Brecon from what was previously the archdeaconry of Brecon — a part of the Diocese of St David's.
Saint Mary's church began as a chapel of ease to the priory but most of the building is dated to later medieval times. The West Tower, some 27 m (90 ft) high, was built in 1510 by Edward, Duke of Buckingham at a cost of £2,000. The tower has eight bells which have been rung since 1750, the heaviest of which weighs 810 kg (16 long hundredweight). In March 2007 the bells were removed from the church tower for refurbishment. The church is a Grade II* listed building.
The Church of St. David, referred to locally as Llanfaes Church, was probably founded in the early sixteenth century. The first Parish Priest, Maurice Thomas, was installed there by John Blaxton, Archdeacon of Brecon in 1555. The name is derived from the Welsh – Llandewi yn y Maes – which translates as St. David’s in the Field. It is probable that the site and the name of the present Church were chosen because of the close proximity of a fresh water well called Ffynnon Dewi (David’s Well) which was situated approximately 150 metres south of the church.
Plough Lane Chapel, also known as Plough United Reformed Church, is a Grade II* listed building. The present building dates back to 1841 and was re-modelled by Owen Morris Roberts and is considered to be one of the finest chapel interiors in Wales.
Today Brecon is a thriving community and is popular as a holiday destination, being on the northern edge of the Brecon Beacons National Park, affording among the best views of the Brecon Beacons themselves, a range of hills, including Pen y Fan, the highest point in southern Britain at 886 m (2,907 ft). The latest Powys County Council (2011) estimate of the population of the town is 8,020.
The town has a statue of Arthur, Duke of Wellington, as well as other statuary in Brecon Cathedral, by Welsh sculptor John Evan Thomas.
The east end of town has two military establishments:Dering Lines, home to the Infantry Battle School (formerly Infantry Training Centre Wales), where infantry officers and Other Ranks are trained, and
The Barracks, Brecon, home to 160th (Wales) Brigade.
Gurkha Company (Mandalay) is based here.
Approximately 9 miles (14 km) to the west of Brecon is Sennybridge Training Area, an important training facility for the British Army.
The west end of Brecon has a small industrial area, and recent years have seen the cattle market moved from the centre of the town to this area, with markets held several times a week.
Brecon has primary schools, with a secondary school and further education college (Coleg Powys) on the northern edge of the town. The town is home to Christ College, the oldest school in Wales.
Brecon is located near where the east-west A40 (Monmouth-Carmarthen-Fishguard) meets the north-south A470 (Cardiff-Merthyr Tydfil-Llandudno). The nearest airport is Cardiff Airport.
The Monmouthshire and Brecon Canal runs for 35 miles (56 km) between Brecon and Pontnewydd, Cwmbran. It then continues to Newport, the towpath being the line of communication and the canal being disjointed by obstructions and road crossings. The canal was built between 1797 and 1812 to link Brecon with Newport and the Severn Estuary. The canalside in Brecon was redeveloped in the 1990s and is now the site of two mooring basins and Theatr Brycheiniog.
The bridge carries the B4601 across the River Usk. A plaque on a house wall adjacent to the eastern end of the bridge records that the present bridge was built in 1563 to replace a medieval bridge destroyed by floods in 1535. It was repaired in 1772 and widened in 1794 by Thomas Edwards, the son of William Edwards of Eglwysilan. It had stone parapets until the 1970s when the present deck was superimposed on the old structure. The bridge was painted by J.M.W. Turner c.1769.
The Neath and Brecon Railway reached Brecon in 1867, terminating at Free Street. By this point, Brecon already had two other railway stations:Watton – from 1 May 1863 when the Brecon and Merthyr Railway to Merthyr Tydfil was opened for traffic
Mount Street – in September 1864, with Llanidloes by the Mid Wales Railway which linked to the Midland Railway at Talyllyn Junction. The three companies consolidated their stations at a newly rebuilt Free Street Joint Station from 1871.
The Hereford, Hay and Brecon Railway was opened gradually from Hereford towards Brecon. The first section opened in 1862, with passenger services on the complete line starting on 21 September 1864. The Midland Railway Company (MR) took over the HH&BR from 1 October 1869, leasing the line by an Act of 30 July 1874 and absorbing the HH&BR in 1876. The MR was absorbed into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMSR) on 1 January 1923.
Passenger services to Merthyr ended in 1958, Neath in October 1962 and Newport in December 1962. In 1962 the important line to Hereford closed. Therefore, Brecon lost all its train services before the Reshaping of British Railways report (often referred to as the Beeching Axe) was implemented. Saline, Michigan, United States
Blaubeuren, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (Blaubeuren is twinned with Brecknockshire, which is an area of Powys, rather than with the town of Brecon.)
Gouesnou, Brittany, France
Brecon Beacons and National Park Visitor Centre (also known as the Brecon Beacons Mountain Centre)
Brecon Cathedral, the seat of the Diocese of Swansea and Brecon
St. Mary's Church, Brecon
Brecon Jazz Festival
South Wales Borderers Museum
Theatr Brycheiniog (Brecon Theatre)
Christ College, Brecon
See Category:People from Brecon
Gerald of Wales (c. 1146 – c. 1223)
Sibyl de Neufmarché, Countess of Hereford, suo jure Lady of Brecknock (c. 1100 – after 1143)
Sir Dafydd Gam (c. 1380–1415), archer, died fighting for Henry V of England at the Battle of Agincourt
Edward, Duke of Buckingham, born at Brecon Castle in 1478
Hugh Price (c. 1495–1574), founder of Jesus College, Oxford
Henry Vaughan (1621–1695), physician, author and one of the major Metaphysical poets
Sarah Siddons, best-known tragedienne actress of the 18th century, born 1755
Charles Kemble (1775–1854), actor, younger brother of Sarah Siddons
Thomas Coke, the first Methodist bishop, who previously had served as mayor of Brecon in 1772
John Evan Thomas, sculptor, born 1810
Frances Hoggan (1843–1927), first British woman to receive a doctorate in medicine
Ernest Howard Griffiths (1851–1932), physicist
Llewela Davies (1871-1952), pianist and composer
Dame Olive Wheeler (1886–1963), educationist, psychologist and university lecturer
Captain Richard Mayberry (1895–1917), World War I flying ace
Reginald, Lord Talbot (1897–1975), buried in Brecon cemetery
Tudor, Lord Watkins (1903–1983), buried at St David's Church cemetery
George Melly (1926–2007), trad jazz and blues singer, art critic and writer
Jeb Loy Nichols, musician
Andy Powell, Welsh Rugby Union international number eight
Sam Hobbs, rugby union player with Cardiff Blues
Jessica Allen, cyclist
Roger Glover, bassist and songwriter with the band Deep Purple
Medicine Head's Peter Hope-Evans
Sian Reese-Williams, actress
Nia Roberts, actress
Brecon hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1889.
August sees the annual Brecon Jazz Festival. Concerts are held in both open air and indoor venues, including the town's market hall and the 400-seat Theatr Brycheiniog, which opened in 1997.
October sees the annual 4-day weekend Brecon Baroque Music Festival, organised by leading violinist Rachel Podger.