Samiksha Jaiswal (Editor)

Borophagus hilli

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Kingdom  Animalia
Family  Canidae
Phylum  Chordata
Order  Carnivores
Class  Mammalia
Subfamily  â€ Borophaginae
Rank  Species
Genus  â€ Borophagus C. S. Johnston 1939
Similar  Carnivores, Cynarctoides, Cynarctoides lemur, Borophagus, Cynarctus

Bone crushing dog borophagus hilli dentary hagerman fossil beds national monument idaho usa

Borophagus hilli is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch (23.3 Mya) through the Pliocene epoch (4.9 Mya).



Borophagus hilli was named by C. S. Johnston in 1939. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms. Borophagus hilli possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.


Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger. Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.


Two fossil specimens of Borophagus hilli were measured by Legendre and Roth for body mass.

  • Specimen 1: 61 kg (130 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 57.7 kg (130 lb)
  • Recombination

    Borophagus hilli was synonymized subjectively with Borophagus direptor by Kurten and Anderson in 1980 as well as synonymous with Osteoborus crassapineatus, Osteoborus progressus. It was recombined as Borophagus hilli by Xiaoming Wang et al. in 1999.

    Fossil distribution

    Borophagus hilli fossil specimens are widespread from east central Florida to southeastern Washington, from Idaho to New Mexico to Texas. Specimens were also found as far south as the southern tip of Baja, Mexico.


    Borophagus hilli Wikipedia

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