Basudeb Acharia (born 11 July 1942) is an Indian politician and a leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) political party. His family originally hails from Tamil Nadu but has been settled in Bengal for a few generations. He also considers himself to be a Bengali.
The son of late Kanai Lal Acharia and Smt. Konak Lata Acharia, he was born at Bero in Purulia district. He now lives in Kantarangunj village, P.O. Adra, in Purulia district. He is a M.A. and B.T. He was elected for the first time to the 7th Lok Sabha from Bankura constituency in 1980. Subsequently, he was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2009 from the same constituency.
He was the leader of the CPI (M) Parliamentary Party in the 15th Lok Sabha.
He was a chairman, Committee on Railways, member, Rules Committee, General Purposes Committee, Committee on Security in Parliament Complex, and Committee on Installation of Portraits/Statues of National Leaders and Parliamentarian in Parliament House. He is also one of the All India Vice-Presidents of the Centre of Indian Trade Unions. In 1980, he was elected as an MP for the first time. In 1981, he was made a Secretariat member in the Purulia District Committee of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). In 1984, he was re-elected to the Lok Sabha. Since 1985, he has been a member of the CPI(M) West Bengal State Committee. He has served as the Chairman, Committee on Public Undertakings from 1990 to 1991. From 1990 to 1996 he was a member of the Consultative Committee, Ministry of Railways. He has been re-elected to the Lok Sabha repeatedly in 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004, and 2009. Between 1993 and 96 he was the Chairman, Committee on Government Assurances. In 1996–97 he was the Chairman, Committee on Railways and a Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Industry. In 1998–99 he was the Convenor, Sub-Committee on Power, Committee on Energy and a Special Invitee, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Railways. Between 1999-2004 he was the Chairman, Committee on Petitions. From 2004 to 2008 he was the leader of the CPI (M) Parliamentary Party in the 14th Lok Sabha, Chairman of the Lok Sabha and a member of several parliamentary committees. In 2007, he was made the Chairman, Committee on Railways. In 2008, he was elected as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) from the 19th party congress held at Coimbatore In 2009, he was re-elected as the leader of the CPI (M) Parliamentary Party in the 15th Lok Sabha. Since August 2009, he has been serving as the Chairman, Committee on Agriculture. He has visited several nations as a parliamentarian. He has been a senior trade union leader. He is one of the Vice-Presidents of the Centre of Indian Trade Unions, also of DVC Shramik Union, Colliery Mazdoor Sabha. He has been a member of the General Council of the CITU and its member of West Bengal State Working Committee. He is also the President of Purulia District CITU. He is serving as a President of West Bengal Railway Contractor Labour Union, DVC Contractor Workers Union, LIC Agent Organisation of India, Thikadar Sramik Union (at Santaldih Thermal Power Station) and at Damodar Cement & Slag Workers Union.