Aumsville is on the site of the pioneer farm of Henry L. Turner, who named the settlement for his son-in-law, Amos M. Davis, more familiarly known as "Aumus", who had died on December 23, 1863. Aumsville was incorporated on August 3, 1911.
On December 14, 2010, an EF2 tornado touched down in the center of Aumsville. The winds destroyed homes and caused substantial damage to businesses and City Hall.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.02 square miles (2.64 km2), all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,584 people, 1,182 households, and 937 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,513.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,356.6/km2). There were 1,231 housing units at an average density of 1,206.9 per square mile (466.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.3% White, 0.5% African American, 2.2% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 6.7% from other races, and 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.4% of the population.
There were 1,182 households of which 49.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 20.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 20.7% were non-families. 16.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.33.
The median age in the city was 30.4 years. 34.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.2% were from 25 to 44; 21.1% were from 45 to 64; and 8.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.2% male and 52.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,003 people, 961 households, and 803 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,792.5 people per square mile (1,467.7/km²). There were 1,024 housing units at an average density of 1,293.2 per square mile (500.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.75% White, 1.83% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.30% African American, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 6.06% from other races, and 4.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.39% of the population.
There were 961 households out of which 52.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 16.4% were non-families. 12.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12 and the average family size was 3.37.
In the city, the population was spread out with 36.4% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, and 5.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,704, and the median income for a family was $41,316. Males had a median income of $32,723 versus $24,514 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,262. About 13.8% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.7% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over.
The Aumsville Corn Festival is held in August.
Aumsville is home to the Brian Haney Memorial Skate Park.