Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Russian: Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов) (born 7 May 1930 in Smolensk) is a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991. One of the founders of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) in 1993, he is described by its leader Gennady Zyuganov as the "Deng Xiaoping" of the party. He published books of poetry under his own name and under the pseudonyms Osenev (Осенев) and Dneprov (Днепров).
Lukyanov was an early political ally of Mikhail Gorbachev, supporting his efforts in issues such as the fight against corruption and the start of reforms in the economy; however, beginning in 1987-88, he increasingly sympathized with the party establishment, correctly foreseeing that Gorbachev's policies unleashed forces that would destroy the USSR.
Lukyanov was born in Smolensk on 7 May 1930, the son of a Red Army officer who was later killed in action during World War II. He graduated from the Law School of the Moscow State University in 1953, while also being a member of the Communist Youth League (Komsomol). During his years in law school, he befriended Mikhail Gorbachev, who was also studying there at the time, becoming an early political ally. He went on to earn a post-graduate degree in Constitutional Law and a PhD in Public Law.
From 1956 to 1961 Lukyanov worked as a legal adviser at the Legal Commission of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and later was an adviser on legislation-drafting at the Supreme Soviet and worked on constitutional law issues at the Central Committee. He also served as a constitutional adviser to the governments of the People's Republic of Poland and the Hungarian People's Republic.
His work in these positions gave him the opportunity to acquaint himself with the governmental and party elite from a young age. He also benefited from being constantly based in Moscow, at the center of government.
Lukyanov's background in constitutional law made him stand out among his generation of Soviet officials; most of his contemporaries in the Soviet leadership had studied engineering, economics or physics.
In 1975-77 he worked on drafting the 1977 Soviet Constitution, which replaced the 1936 Soviet Constitution. From 1977 till 1983 he was Chief of the Secretariat of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He was also a leading member of the powerful Central Auditing Commission. Lukyanov was a secretary of the CPSU Central Committee from January 1987 and a candidate member of the Politburo from September 1988.
Lukyanov was elected vice-chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union in March 1989, and chairman the following year. In 1991, Ivan Silayev accused him of being the leading force behind the Soviet coup attempt of 1991. Lukyanov was arrested on 29 August 1991, and held for fifteen months on charges of conspiracy. Throughout the investigation, Lukyanov denied complicity.
Lukyanov has been the Chairman of the Central Advisory Council of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and the senior adviser to party leader Gennady Zyuganov, since co-founding the party in 1993.
He is also a member of the Union of Writers of Russia.
Lukyanov was elected as a deputy to the first three State Dumas of the Russian Federation (1993, 1995 and 1999). His last political position was as Chairman of the Duma Committee on Constitutional Law ( Председатель Комитета ГД по конституционному законодательству и государственному строительству). He did not participate in the elections of 2003 and instead became a board member of the company OEG Petroservis.