Allotransplant (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species. The transplant is called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.
- Transplantable organs and tissues
- Laws and regulations
- Other transplant options
It is contrasted with Autotransplantation (from one part of the body to another in the same person), Syngeneic transplantation (Grafts transplanted between two genetically identical individuals of the same species) and xenotransplantation (from other species).
Allografts can be referred to as "homostatic" if they are biologically inert when transplanted, such as bone and cartilage.
An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an immune attack, called graft-versus-host disease.
Informed consent is required before tissue is harvested from a donor, alive or dead. Proper screening for pathology and risk factors for communicable diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis B and C is then conducted.
In the US, donor tissue must be harvested and processed adhering to the Current Good Tissue Practices rule. In most cases it is sent to tissue banks for processing and distribution. Each year, Food and Drug Administration regulated and American Association of Tissue Banks-accredited tissue banks distribute 1.5 million bone and tissue allografts.
Transplantable organs and tissues
A variety of organs and tissues can be used for allografts, including:
Laws and regulations
In the US, the Federal government Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulated human tissue intended for transplants since 1993. In order to ensure the quality of donor tissue and reduce contamination and disease transmission risks, three regulations addressing manufacturing activities associated with human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps) were promulgated in May 2005: The first requires companies producing and distributing HCT/Ps to register with the FDA. The second, called the “Donor Eligibility” rule, proscribes criteria for donor eligibility. The third, the “Current Good Tissue Practices” rule, oversees overall processing and distribution practices of each company.
Other transplant options
As with many operations, allotransplantation also has some side effects. A limiting factor in tissue allotransplantation for reconstructive surgery deals with the side effects of immunosuppression (metabolic disorders, malignancies, opportunistic infections) which is a predominant issue. Also it can not be forgotten that the risk of transmitting infection is very high.