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Ahmad Qavam

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Monarch  Ahmad Shah Qajar
Preceded by  Hassan Pirnia
Children  Hussein Qavam
Monarch  Ahmad Shah Qajar
Role  Politician
Succeeded by  Malek Mansur
Name  Ahmad Qavam
Preceded by  Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
Succeeded by  Mostowfi ol-Mamalek

Ahmad Qavam httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Died  July 23, 1955, Tehran, Iran
Similar People  Colonel Pessian, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Kuchik Khan, Simko Shikak, Allen H Turnage

Iran, محمد اميني « سندهاي تازه آمريکا ـ ۳۰ تير ۱۳۳۱ »ـ حسين مُهري ؛

Ahmad Qavām (2 January 1873 – 23 July 1955) (Persian: احمد قوام‎‎), also known as Qavām os-Saltaneh (Persian: قوام السلطنه‎‎), was a politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran five times.


Early life

Qavam was born in 1876 to a prominent Iranian family. His uncle, Amin Aldoleh, was a prime minister of Iran. He served in the royal court of Nasereddin Shah early in his career. He slowly climbed his way up, and obtained the title Ghavam al-Saltaneh during the Constitutional Revolution of Iran. Hasan Vothuq (also known as Vothuq al-Dowleh) was his older brother. The letter signed by Mozaffaredin Shah to accept the Iranian Constitutional Revolution was written by Qavam, who had the title of Dabir-e Hozoor (Private Secretary) at the time. In fact Qavam was instrumental in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution[2]. He became Prime Minister several times during both Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties. Any time the country needed him, he accepted the challenge. He played a significant role in preventing the USSR from separating Iran's northern states twice [2]. Nevertheless, historians have mixed feelings about his legacy.

Political career

In 1921, during the coup d'état of Tehran against the Qajar government, Tabatabaei ordered Colonel Pesian to arrest many of the opposition, among them Ahmad Qavam. Qavam was arrested and sent to Tehran.

However with the fall of Zia'eddin Tabatabaee's government, Mostowfi ol-Mamalek among others was offered the position of Prime Minister, which he and the rest declined, due to the unstable political situation at the time. Hence Ghavam who had just been released from the Ishratabad prison of Tehran was offered the position, which he accepted and became Prime Minister overnight. So unusual was his rise that Iraj Mirza wrote the following verses:

یکی را افکند امروز در بند
کند روز دیگر او را خداوند

"One day in prison he is thrown,
another day the King's chair he'll own"

Ghavam in fact ordered the arrest of Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee in an incident 25 years later. He also ordered the crackdown on the revolt of Colonel Pesian which he crushed with the aid of Reza Pahlavi

Of the major events that occurred during his terms as the Prime Minister, was his invitation to Arthur Millspaugh for assisting the government in its finances. Another was the riots of 1942 for economic hardship. He appointed Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi to restore order and end the riots, which he did forcefully. Qavam was also instrumental in the 1919 treaty between Iran, Russia, and Britain.

He was again voted Prime Minister on 26 January 1946 with a slim margin in the Majlis of 52-51. The Majlis thought he would have the best chance of resolving the Soviet inspired rebellion of the occupied Azerbaijan province since Qavam was the largest property-owner in the region. Qavam did not disappoint. He ordered the Iranian delegation to the UN to negotiate issues pending before the Security Council directly with the Soviet delegation. He then flew to Moscow to discuss the issues personally with Stalin.

When the Soviets violated the terms of the Tripartite Pact which called for all foreign military forces to be withdrawn from Iranian territory by 2 March 1946, it drew a strong rebuke from Parliamentary Whip, Mohammed Mossadegh.

Qavam arranged a deal with the Soviets, granting an oil concession in the North contingent on the approval of the Majlis after the elections. Under the terms of the agreement with Qavam, Soviet troops began withdrawing from Iran. When the new Majlis was seated, they immediately voted against the proposed Soviet oil concession. This earned Qavam the congenial title, "The Old Fox".


Qavam died at the age of 82 in 1955 in Tehran. He was survived by his second wife and his only son, Hossein.


Ahmad Qavam Wikipedia