Born in France with French father and Malian mother, Doumbia spent most of his youth career in a suburb of Paris . He started his career with a club in Le Blanc-Mesnil at age of 8, and spent 1 year each in Paris FC and Noisy-le-Sec. Doumbia left for Lega Pro Prima Divisione side Pescara in 2008-09 season. Mainly a player of Berretti team, he made his first team debut on 8 October 2008, a Coppa Italia Lega Pro match that won Celano 4–0. He also played the second match that 3–5 lost to Foggia.
With Pescara, he scored 14 goals for the youth team.
Doumbia played for Serie D side Santegidiese in 2009–10 season, scored 8 goals, his profermance made Serie A side Parma offered him a contract near the end of season.
Doumbia formally under contract with Parma on 1 July 2010. In July 2010 he left for Lega Pro Prima Divisione side Atletico Roma on loan for €1,000, along with Gianluca Lapadula (loan), Abel Gigli (co-ownership deal for €500) and Alessio Tombesi (co-ownership deal for €50,000); as part of the deal that Lega Pro Seconda Divisione top-scorer Daniel Ciofani moved to opposite direction in another co-ownership deal for €300,000.
Doumbia made his club debut on 8 August 2010, the opening match of the season. He replaced Francesco Mazzarani at extra time, which Atletico Roma lost 1–2 to Cremonese in the Coppa Italia match.
On 11 January 2011 he was signed by Ascoli on loan for the remainder of the season.
In July 2011, he joined Lega Pro Prima Divisione side Como Calcio on a season-long loan deal.
In June–July 2012 Parma and Siena made cashless player swap, which saw Parma signed Gonçalo Brandão, Giuseppe Pacini, Andrea Rossi and Alessandro Iacobucci; while Siena signed Doumbia, Alberto Galuppo, Manuel Coppola and Paolo Hernán Dellafiore; both clubs also retained 50% registration rights on their players. 50% registration rights of both Doumbia and Pacini were tagged for €500,000; Doumbia left for San Marino Calcio in temporary deal soon after. In June 2013, the 8 co-ownership deals were renewed.
In July 2013 Doumbia returned to Siena for the pre-season camp. On 30 July he left the camp in order to finalize a new transfer. On 20 August 2013 Doumbia returned to Parma outright for €100,000 (equal to the revenue received by Parma from Iacobucci). On 27 August 2013 Lecce announced the temporary deal of Doumbia, which Lecce also received €260,000 from Parma as premi di valorizzazione. On 30 June 2014 Lecce signed Doumbia outright for €1 million; Parma signed Daniele Casiraghi in the same deal also for €1 million.
Doumbia spent four seasons at U.S. Lecce, amassing a total of 89 appearances and 13 goals.
In July 2017 he moved to Livorno on loan.