The 91st Infantry Division (famously nicknamed as the "Wild West Division" with a "Fir Tree" as its Division insignia to symbolize its traditional home of the Far West) was an infantry division of the United States Army that fought in World War I and World War II. From 1946 until 2008, it was part of the United States Army Reserve. It was briefly inactivated from 2008 until 2010 when it was elevated back to a division size element as the 91st Training Division (Operations).
Constituted on 5 August 1917 at Camp Lewis, Washington, near Tacoma, the division soon thereafter departed for England in the summer of 1918. In September 1918, the division's first operation was in the St. Mihiel Offensive in France. Serving under the U.S. Army's V Corps, the division fought in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive and successfully helped to destroy the German First Guard Division and continued to smash through three successive enemy lines.
Twelve days before the end of World War I, the division, as part of the VII Corps of the French Sixth Army, helped drive the Germans east across the Escaut River. The division was awarded separate campaign streamers for its active role in the Lorraine, Meuse-Argonne and Ypres-Lys campaigns.
In 1919, the 91st was inactivated at the Presidio of San Francisco. After being reconstituted in 1921 as part of the Organized Reserves, the division then served as an administrative control center for the next 21 years.
The Division was composed of the following units: Headquarters, 91st Division
Headquarters, 181st Brigade
361st Infantry Regiment
362nd Infantry Regiment
347th Machine Gun Battalion
Headquarters, 182nd Brigade
363rd Infantry Regiment
364th Infantry Regiment
348th Machine Gun Battalion
166th Field Artillery Brigade
346th Field Artillery Regiment
347th Field Artillery Regiment
348th Field Artillery Regiment
316th Trench Mortar Battery
348th Machine Gun Battalion
316th Engineer Regiment
316th Medical Regiment
316th Ordnance Company
91st Division Quartermaster Train
As the early battles of World War II involving the United States were being fought, the division was reactivated at Camp White, Oregon on August 15, 1942, under the command of Major General Charles H. Gerhardt. After initial training at Camp White, the division participation in the Oregon Maneuver combat exercise in the fall of 1943.
Then, the division, now under Major General William G. Livesay, departed for the European Continent on April 3, 1944. There, on the Italian Front, the 361st Regimental Combat Team was detached to participate in the battles for Rome and the Arno River. It became the first formation of the U.S. Fifth Army to reach the river. In September 1944, the division crossed the Sieve River, outflanked the famous Gothic Line, and captured the Futa Pass. For its part in combat, the division was awarded the North Apennines, Po Valley and Rome-Arno campaign streamers.
The division returned to the United States where it was inactivated at Camp Rucker, Alabama, in December 1945. Two members were awarded the Medal of Honor during the war, Roy W. Harmon and Oscar G. Johnson.
Awards: MH-2 ; DSC-2 ; DSM-1 ; SS-528; LM-33; SM-43 ; BSM-4,152.
Days of combat: 271
Rome-Arno (22 Jan 44 - 9 Sep 44)
North Apennines (10 Sep 44 - 4 April 45)
Po Valley (5 Apr 45 - 8 May 45)Total battle casualties: 8,744
Killed in action: 1,400
Wounded in action: 6,748
Missing in action: 262
Prisoner of war: 334
In December 1946, the 91st was reactivated at the Presidio of San Francisco as part of the U.S. Army Reserve. In 1959, the division was reorganized and redesignated as the 91st Division (Training). In 1993, the division was again reorganized and redesignated as the 91st Division (Exercise) and again in 1999 as the 91st Division (Training Support).
Its previous headquarters were at Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (PRFTA), Dublin, California.
In its 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommendations, the Department of Defense recommended relocating the 91st Division to Fort Hunter Liggett.
The four brigades of the 91st Division were redesignated as separate brigades:1st Brigade (PRFTA) is now 5th Brigade, 75th Division.
2nd Brigade (Fort Carson) is now 5th Armored Brigade.
3rd Brigade (Travis AFB) is now the 402nd Field Artillery Brigade.
4th Brigade (Fort Lewis) is now 191st Infantry Brigade.
The 91st Division moved its headquarters to Fort Hunter Liggett on 1 May 2009.
The 91st Division was reorganized and re-designated as the 91st Training Brigade (Operations) on 1 October 2009.
The 91st Training Brigade (Operations) was re-designated as the 91st Training Division (Operations) on 1 October 2010.William Borders, Army Catholic Chaplain, was awarded the Bronze Star for Valor, while serving with the 362 Infantry Regiment in bitter fighting in Italy. He later became the Archbishop of Baltimore.
Frederick Lippitt, politician and philanthropist.
Oscar Franklin Miller, Medal of Honor recipient.
Deming Bronson, Medal of Honor recipient.
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States
Richard C. Oshlo, as Commanding Officer of the Division's 3rd Battalion, 361st Infantry Regiment, was the youngest Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Army in World War II at the age of 23. He was commanding officer of the 3rd Battalion when it won the Presidential Unit Citation for capturing Livergnano. Later he graduated 1st in his class at the Army's prestigious Command and General Staff College at Ft Leavenworth and was Mayor of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1964.