Kalpana Kalpana (Editor)

7th United States Congress

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Senate President  Aaron Burr (DR)
Senate Majority:  Democratic-Republican
House Speaker:  Nathaniel Macon (DR)
House Majority:  Democratic-Republican
7th United States Congress
Senate Pres. pro tem:  Abraham Baldwin (DR) Stephen R. Bradley (DR)
Members:  34 Senators 107 Representatives 2 Non-voting members

The Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1803, during the first two years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority, except during the Special session of the Senate, when there was a Federalist majority in the Senate.


Major events

  • March 4, 1801: Presidential inauguration of Thomas Jefferson
  • May 10, 1801: The pascha of Tripoli declared war on United States by having the flagpole on the consulate chopped down
  • March 16, 1802: West Point established
  • February 24, 1803: First time an Act of Congress was declared unconstitutional: U.S. Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison
  • Major legislation

  • April 29, 1802: Judiciary Act of 1802, ch. 31, 2 Stat. 156
  • April 30, 1802: Enabling Act of 1802, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173
  • States admitted

  • Ohio was admitted as a state, having previously been a portion of the Northwest Territory. The exact date is unclear and in dispute, but it is undisputed that it was during this Congress. The official date when Ohio became a state was not set until 1953, when the 83rd U.S. Congress passed legislation retrospectively designating the date of the first meeting of the Ohio state legislature, March 1, 1803, as that date. However, on April 30, 1802, the 7th U.S. Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, and admission of Ohio into the Union." (Sess. 1, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173) On February 19, 1803, the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio." (Sess. 2, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201) The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress states that Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802, and counts its seats as vacant from that date.
  • Party summary

    The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


    Although the Federalists had more Senators during the very brief March 1801 special session, by the time the first regular session met in December 1801, the Democratic-Republicans had gained majority control.


  • President: Aaron Burr (DR)
  • President pro tempore: Abraham Baldwin (DR), first elected December 7, 1801
  • Stephen R. Bradley (DR), first elected December 14, 1802
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Nathaniel Macon, (DR), elected December 7, 1801
  • Members

    This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


    Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1802; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1804; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1806.

    House of Representatives

    The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

    Changes in membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


    There was 1 death, 8 resignations, and 2 seats added for a new state.

    House of Representatives

  • replacements: 8
  • Democratic-Republicans: no net change
  • Federalists: no net change
  • deaths: 1
  • resignations: 9
  • forfeiture: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 11
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.


  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Claims
  • Commerce and Manufactures
  • Elections
  • Revisal and Unfinished Business
  • Rules (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Enrolled Bills
  • Officers

  • Architect of the Capitol: William Thornton
  • Librarian of Congress: John J. Beckley
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: Thomas J. Claggett (Episcopalian)
  • Edward Gantt (Episcopalian), elected December 9, 1801
  • Secretary: Samuel A. Otis
  • Doorkeeper: James Mathers
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain: William Parkinson (Baptist)
  • Clerk: John Beckley
  • Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton
  • Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton
  • References

    7th United States Congress Wikipedia

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