The 56th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly was created following a general election in 2006. Its members were sworn-in on October 3, 2006 but it was called into session by the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick on February 6, 2007.
Eugene McGinley, was elected speaker at the first session of the Assembly on February 6, 2007 but resigned on October 31, 2007 to join the cabinet. Roy Boudreau was elected speaker on November 27, 2007.
Premier of New Brunswick Shawn Graham leads the government.
Former Premier Bernard Lord was nominal leader of the opposition until January 31, 2007 at which time he resigned his seat and was replaced by interim leader of the Progressive Conservatives, Jeannot Volpé. On October 18, 2008, David Alward was elected leader of the Progressive Conservatives, his first sitting as leader of the opposition was November 25, 2008.
Most of the current members were elected at the 36th general election held on September 18, 2006. The exceptions are Chris Collins, who was elected in a by-election on March 5, 2007 as a result of the resignation of Bernard Lord on January 31, 2007; Jack Carr, who was elected in a by-election on November 3, 2008 as a result of the resignation of Keith Ashfield; and Burt Paulin, who was elected in a by-election on March 9, 2009 as a result of the resignation of Percy Mockler, Paul took his seat on March 20, 2009. The standing of the legislature also changed when MLAs Joan MacAlpine-Stiles and Wally Stiles crossed the floor from the Progressive Conservatives to the Liberals on April 17, 2007.
- December 22, 2008 Percy Mockler, Restigouche-la-Vallée was appointed to the Senate of Canada
- February 9, 2010 Mike Murphy, Moncton North resigns his seat and cabinet post.
- February 28, 2010 Rose-May Poirier, Rogersville-Kouchibouguac was appointed to the Senate of Canada