| Edward VII, then George V|
William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley
Alfred Deakin, then Andrew Fisher
Federal, South Australia, New South Wales
Monarch – Edward VII (until 6 May), then George V
Governor-General – William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley
Prime Minister – Alfred Deakin (until 29 April), then Andrew Fisher
Premier of New South Wales – Charles Wade (until 1 October), then James McGowen
Premier of South Australia – Archibald Peake (until 3 June), then John Verran
Premier of Queensland – William Kidston
Premier of Tasmania – Sir Neil Elliott Lewis
Premier of Western Australia – Sir Newton Moore (until 16 September), then Frank Wilson
Premier of Victoria – John Murray
Governor of New South Wales – Frederic Thesiger, 3rd Baron Chelmsford
Governor of South Australia – Admiral Sir Day Bosanquet
Governor of Queensland – Sir William MacGregor
Governor of Tasmania – Major General Sir Harry Barron
Governor of Western Australia – Sir Gerald Strickland
Governor of Victoria – Sir Thomas Gibson-Carmichael
21 March – Harry Houdini achieves one of the first powered flights in Australia.
13 April – A referendum is held into alteration of the Australian Constitution regarding state debt and surplus revenue. The state debt question was carried, the surplus revenue question was not.
6 May – Edward VII dies, his son George V becomes King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions.
16 September – The Australian Treasury is given authority to issue currency, replacing the use of the British Pound.
16 November – The Northern Territory Acceptance Act 1910 receives Royal Assent from the Governor-General, transferring the Northern Territory from the control of South Australia to the Commonwealth.
19 November – A cyclone strikes the town of Broome, Western Australia, killing 40 people and destroying 20 houses.
25 November – The Royal Australian Navy is created with the passing of the Australian Naval Defence Act by the Federal Parliament. The destroyers HMAS Parramatta and HMAS Yarra arrive in Australia.
8 December – Geelong, Victoria is declared a city.
Dethridge wheel developed – used to measure flow of irrigation water delivered to farms
Henry Handel Richardson's novel The Getting of Wisdom published
Comedy King wins the Melbourne Cup
South Australia wins the Sheffield Shield
The Great Britain rugby league team went on their first tour of Australasia and defeated Australia to win the Ashes.
17 September – The 1910 NSWRFL season culminates in a grand final between South Sydney and Newtown which is drawn 4 – 4. Newtown are crowned premiers by virtue of being minor premiers.
11 January – Shane Paltridge (died 1966), politician
28 January – Jim Willis (died 1995), botanist
7 April – Alec Downer (died 1981), politician
10 April – Bob Marshall (died 2004), billiards champion
17 April – Ivan Goff (died 1999), screenwriter
2 May – Laurie Nash (died 1986), cricketer and footballer
11 May – John Béchervaise (died 1998), Antarctic explorer
6 July – John Knott (died 1999), public servant
16 July – Stan McCabe (died 1968), cricketer
22 July – Alan Moorehead (died 1983), war correspondent
22 August – Kenneth McIntyre (died 2004), historian and mathematician
28 August Kathleen Best (died 1957), first director of the Women's Royal Australian Army Corps
28 August – Tom Burke (died 1973), politician
24 September – Douglas Darby (died 1985), politician
1 October – José Enrique Moyal, Palesrinian-born mathematical physicist (died 1998)
4 January – Sir Frederick Darley (born 1830), Chief Justice of NSW
18 January – James Cuthbertson (born 1851), poet and schoolteacher
29 January – Sir Charles Todd (born 1826), astronomer
19 March – James Smith (born 1820), journalist
3 April – Catherine Helen Spence (born 1825), writer and social reformer
25 April – Edward William O'Sullivan (born 1846), journalist and politician
27 May – George Britton Halford (born 1824), anatomist and physiologist
25 June – Field Flowers Goe (born 1832), Anglican bishop
20 July – Anderson Dawson (born 1863), Premier of Queensland (1899)
13 August - Micky Dore (born 1883), rugby league footballer
22 August – Joey Palmer (born 1859), cricketer
26 August – Thomas Petrie (born 1831), explorer and grazier
30 August – George Throssell (born 1840), Premier of Western Australia (1901)
23 September – Tup Scott (born 1858), cricketer
14 November – Charles Gregory (born 1878), cricketer
1910 in Australia Wikipedia
See also: 1909 in Australia, 1911 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history.